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Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology

Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology 9th Edition

By: Conrad Kottak
ISBN-10: 1260071472
/ ISBN-13: 9781260801910
Edition: 9th Edition
Language: English
				
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Chapter 1 What Is Anthropology?

    • The Cross-Cultural Perspective
    • Human Adaptability
    • Adaptation, Variation, and Change
    • Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology
    • General Anthropology
    • The Subdisciplines of Anthropology
    • Cultural Anthropology
    • Anthropological Archaeology
    • Biological Anthropology
    • Linguistic Anthropology
    • Applied Anthropology
    • Anthropology and Other Academic Fields
    • A Humanistic Science
    • Cultural Anthropology and Sociology
    • Anthropology Today: School of Hope
    • Summary

Chapter 2 Culture

    • What Is Culture?
    • Culture Is Learned
    • Culture Is Symbolic
    • Culture Is Shared
    • Culture and Nature
    • Culture Is All-Encompassing and Integrated
    • Culture Is Instrumental, Adaptive, and Maladaptive
    • Culture’s Evolutionary Basis
    • What We Share with Other Primates
    • How We Differ from Other Primates
    • Universality, Generality, and Particularity
    • Universals and Generalities
    • Particularity: Patterns of Culture
    • Culture and the Individual
    • Levels of Culture
    • Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights
    • Mechanisms of Cultural Change
    • Globalization
    • Anthropology Today: Preserving Cultural Heritage
    • Summary

Chapter 3 Doing Anthropology

    • What Do Anthropologists Do?
    • Research Methods in Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
    • Multidisciplinary Approaches
    • Studying the Past
    • Survey and Excavation
    • Kinds of Archaeology
    • Dating the Past
    • Relative Dating
    • Absolute Dating
    • Molecular Anthropology
    • Kinds of Biological Anthropology
    • Bone Biology
    • Anthropometry
    • Primatology
    • Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology
    • Ethnography: Anthropology’s Distinctive Strategy
    • Observation and Participant Observation
    • Conversation, Interviewing, and Interview Schedules
    • The Genealogical Method
    • Key Cultural Consultants
    • Life Histories
    • Local Beliefs and Perceptions, and the Ethnographer’s
    • Problem-Oriented Ethnography
    • Longitudinal Studies, Team Research, and Multisited Ethnography
    • Survey Research
    • Doing Anthropology Right and Wrong: Ethical Issues
    • Ownership Issues
    • The Code of Ethics
    • Anthropologists and the Military
    • Anthropology Today: A Workshop in Genomics for Indigenous Peoples
    • Summary

Chapter 4 Evolution, Genetics, and Human Variation

    • Evolution
    • Natural History before Darwin
    • Evolution: Theory and Fact
    • Genetics
    • Mendel’s Experiments
    • Independent Assortment
    • Population Genetics and Mechanisms of Genetic Evolution
    • Natural Selection
    • Mutation
    • Random Genetic Drift
    • Gene Flow
    • Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology
    • Races Are Not Biologically Distinct
    • Genetic Markers Don’t Correlate with Phenotype
    • Human Biological Adaptation
    • Explaining Skin Color
    • Genes and Disease
    • Lactose Tolerance
    • Anthropology Today: Disease Evolution: A Case Study
    • Summary

Chapter 5 The Primates

    • Our Place among Primates
    • Apes Are Our Closest Relatives
    • Zoological Taxonomy
    • Homologies and Analogies
    • Primate Adaptations
    • The Primate Suborders
    • Monkeys
    • New World Monkeys
    • Old World Monkeys
    • Apes
    • Gibbons
    • Orangutans
    • Gorillas
    • Chimpanzees
    • Bonobos
    • Endangered Primates
    • Primate Evolution
    • Chronology
    • Early Primates
    • Early Cenozoic Primates
    • Oligocene Proto-Monkeys
    • Miocene Hominoids: The Proto-Apes
    • Planet of the Proto-Apes
    • An Evolutionary Timetable
    • Anthropology Today: Should Apes Have Human Rights?
    • Summary

Chapter 6 Early Hominins

    • What Makes Us Human?
    • Bipedalism
    • Brains, Skulls, and Childhood Dependency
    • Tools
    • Teeth
    • Chronology of Hominin Evolution
    • Who Were the Earliest Hominins?
    • Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    • Orrorin tugenensis
    • Ardipithecus
    • The Varied Australopiths
    • Australopithecus anamensis
    • Australopithecus afarensis
    • Gracile and Robust Australopiths
    • Early Stone Tools
    • Surprisingly Early Stone Tools
    • Oldowan Hominins at the Kanjera Site
    • Anthropology Today: 3-D Bone Scans Suggest Lucy’s Climbing Ability and Cause of Death
    • Summary

Chapter 7 The Genus Homo 149

    • Early Homo
    • Recent Discoveries
    • H. rudolfensis
    • H. habilis and H. erectus
    • Sister Species
    • Hunting, Tools, and Teeth
    • Out of Africa I: H. erectus
    • Acheulean Tools
    • Adaptive Strategies of H. erectus
    • The Evolution and Expansion of H. erectus
    • Middle Pleistocene Hominins
    • Ice Ages of the Pleistocene
    • H. heidelbergensis
    • The Neandertals
    • Cold-Adapted Neandertals
    • The Neandertals and Modern People
    • The Denisovans
    • Neandertals, Denisovans, and Anatomically Modern Humans
    • Asian Island Anomalies
    • Homo floresiensis
    • Homo luzonensis
    • Modern Humans
    • Out of Africa: AMH Edition
    • “Mitochondrial Eve” and the Spread of AMHs
    • AMHs on the Move
    • The Advent of Behavioral Modernity
    • Advances in Technology
    • Glacial Retreat
    • Settling New Continents
    • Beringia and Beyond: Genetic Evidence
    • Archaeological Evidence
    • Anthropology Today: The Rising Stars of a South African Cave
    • Summary

Chapter 8 The First Farmers

    • Broad-Spectrum Economies
    • The Mesolithic in Europe
    • Developments in Asia, including Early Pottery
    • The Neolithic
    • The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East
    • The Environmental Setting: A Vertical Economy
    • Steps toward Food Production
    • Genetic Changes and Domestication
    • The Coevolution of Farming and Property Rights
    • Food Production and the State
    • Other Old World Farmers
    • The Neolithic in Africa
    • The Neolithic in Europe
    • The Neolithic in Asia
    • The First American Farmers
    • Key Aspects of Food Production in the Americas
    • The Tropical Origins of New World Domestication
    • Explaining the Neolithic
    • Costs and Benefits
    • American First?
    • Anthropology Today: Global Climate Change and Other Threats to Archaeology
    • Summary

Chapter 9 The First Cities and States

    • State Formation
    • Regulation of Hydraulic Economies
    • Regional Trade
    • Population, War, and Circumscription
    • Attributes of States
    • State Formation in the Middle East
    • Urban Life
    • An Early Ritual Center
    • The Halafian and Ubaid Periods
    • Social Ranking and Chiefdoms
    • The Rise of the State
    • Other Early States
    • State Formation in Mesoamerica
    • Early Chiefdoms and Elites
    • Warfare and State Formation: The Zapotec Case
    • States in the Valley of Mexico
    • Why States Collapse
    • The Maya and Their Fall
    • Anthropology Today: The Fantastic Claims of Pseudo-Archaeology
    • Summary

Chapter 10 Language and Communication

    • Language
    • Nonhuman Primate Communication
    • Call Systems
    • Sign Language
    • The Origin of Language
    • Nonverbal Communication
    • Kinesics
    • Personal Space and Displays of Affection
    • The Structure of Language
    • Language, Thought, and Culture
    • The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    • Focal Vocabulary
    • Sociolinguistics
    • Social and Linguistic Variation
    • The Language of Restaurant Food
    • Linguistic Diversity within Nations
    • Linguistic Diversity in California
    • Gender Speech Contrasts
    • Stratification and Symbolic Domination
    • African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
    • Historical Linguistics
    • Language, Culture, and History
    • Language Loss
    • Anthropology Today: Words of the Year
    • Summary

Chapter 11 Making a Living

    • Adaptive Strategies
    • Foraging
    • Geographic Distribution of Foragers
    • Correlates of Foraging
    • Adaptive Strategies Based on Food Production
    • Horticulture
    • Agriculture
    • The Cultivation Continuum
    • Agricultural Intensification: People and the Environment
    • Pastoralism
    • Economic Systems
    • Organization of Production in Nonindustrial Societies
    • Means of Production
    • Alienation in Industrial Economies
    • Economizing and Maximization
    • Alternative Ends
    • Distribution and Exchange
    • The Market Principle
    • Redistribution
    • Reciprocity
    • Coexistence of Exchange Principles
    • Potlatching
    • Anthropology Today: When the Mills Shut Down: An Anthropologist Looks at Deindustrialization
    • Summary

Chapter 12 Political Systems

    • What Is “The Political”?
    • Types and Trends
    • Bands and Tribes
    • Foraging Bands
    • Tribal Cultivators
    • The Village Head
    • The “Big Man”
    • Pantribal Sodalities
    • Nomadic Politics
    • Chiefdoms
    • Political and Economic Systems
    • Status Systems
    • The Emergence of Stratification
    • State Systems
    • Population Control
    • Judiciary
    • Enforcement
    • Fiscal Support
    • Social Control
    • Hegemony and Resistance
    • Weapons of the Weak
    • Shame and Gossip
    • The Igbo Women’s War
    • Anthropology Today: The Illegality Industry: A Failed System of Border Control
    • Summary

Chapter 13 Families, Kinship, and Marriage

    • How Anthropologists View Families and Kinship
    • Families
    • Nuclear and Extended Families
    • Industrialism and Family Organization
    • Changes in North American Kinship
    • It’s All Relative
    • The Family among Foragers
    • Descent
    • Attributes of Descent Groups
    • Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules
    • Defining Marriage
    • Exogamy and Incest
    • Incest and Its Avoidance
    • Endogamy
    • Same-Sex Marriage
    • Arranged Marriages versus Romance Marriages
    • Marriage: A Group Affair
    • Gifts at Marriage
    • Durable Alliances
    • Divorce
    • Plural Marriages
    • Polygyny
    • Polyandry
    • The Online Marriage Market
    • Anthropology Today: What Anthropologists Could Teach the Supreme Court about the Definition of Marriage
    • Summary

Chapter 14 Gender

    • Sex and Gender
    • Recurrent Gender Patterns
    • Gender Roles and Gender Stratification
    • Reduced Gender Stratification: Matrilineal-Matrilocal Societies
    • Matriarchy
    • Increased Gender Stratification: Patrilineal-Patrilocal Societies
    • Patriarchy and Violence
    • Gender in Industrial Societies
    • Changes in Gendered Work
    • Work and Family: Reality and Stereotypes
    • The Feminization of Poverty
    • Work and Happiness
    • Beyond Male and Female
    • Sexual Orientation
    • Anthropology Today: Gender, Ethnicity, and a Gold Medal for Fiji
    • Summary

Chapter 15 Religion

    • What Is Religion?
    • Expressions of Religion
    • Spiritual Beings
    • Powers and Forces
    • Magic and Religion
    • Uncertainty, Anxiety, Solace
    • Rituals
    • Rites of Passage
    • Totemism
    • Social Control
    • Kinds of Religion
    • Protestant Values and Capitalism
    • World Religions
    • Religion and Change
    • Revitalization Movements and Cargo Cults
    • Religious Changes in the United States
    • New and Alternative Religious Movements
    • Religion and Cultural Globalization
    • Evangelical Protestantism and Pentecostalism
    • Homogenization, Indigenization, or Hybridization?
    • The Spread of Islam
    • Antimodernism and Fundamentalism
    • Religious Radicalization Today
    • Secular Rituals
    • Anthropology Today: Great Expectorations
    • Summary

Chapter 16 Ethnicity and Race

    • Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity
    • Status and Identity
    • Minority Groups and Stratification
    • Race and Ethnicity
    • The Social Construction of Race
    • Hypodescent: Race in the United States
    • Race in the Census
    • Not Us: Race in Japan
    • Phenotype and Fluidity: Race in Brazil
    • Ethnic Groups, Nations, and Nationalities
    • Ethnic Diversity by Region
    • Nationalities without Nations
    • Ethnic Tolerance and Accommodation
    • Assimilation
    • The Plural Society
    • Multiculturalism
    • Changing Demographics in the United States
    • The Gray and the Brown
    • The Gray Need the Brown
    • The Backlash to Multiculturalism
    • Ethnic Conflict
    • Sectarian Violence
    • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Black Lives Matter
    • Anti-ethnic Discrimination
    • Anthropology Today: Why Are the Greens So White? Race and Ethnicity in Golf
    • Summary

Chapter 17 Applying Anthropology

    • What Is Applied Anthropology?
    • The Role of the Applied Anthropologist
    • Early Applications
    • Academic and Applied Anthropology
    • Applied Anthropology Today
    • Development Anthropology
    • Equity
    • Negative Equity Impact
    • Strategies for Innovation
    • Overinnovation
    • Indigenous Models
    • Anthropology and Education
    • Urban Anthropology
    • Medical Anthropology
    • Disease Theory Systems
    • Scientific Medicine versus Western Medicine
    • Industrialization, Globalization, and Health
    • Anthropology and Business
    • Can Change Be Bad?
    • Public and Applied Anthropology
    • Careers and Anthropology
    • Anthropology Today: Culturally Appropriate Marketing
    • Summary

Chapter 18 The World System, Colonialism, and Inequality

    • The World System
    • World-System Theory
    • The Emergence of the World System
    • Industrialization
    • Causes of the Industrial Revolution
    • Socioeconomic Changes Associated with the Industrial Revolution
    • Industrial Stratification
    • The Persistence of Inequality
    • Wealth Distribution in the United States
    • Risky Living on the American Periphery
    • Colonialism and Imperialism
    • The First Phase of European Colonialism: Spain and Portugal
    • Commercial Expansion and European Imperialism
    • The British Colonial Empire
    • French Colonialism
    • Colonialism and Identity
    • Postcolonial Studies
    • Development
    • Neoliberalism
    • Neoliberalism and NAFTA’s Economic Refugees
    • Communism, Socialism, and Postsocialism
    • Communism
    • Postsocialist Transitions
    • The World System Today
    • Anthropology Today: Mining Giant Compatible with Sustainability Institute?
    • Summary

Chapter 19 Anthropology’s Role in a Globalizing World

    • Globalization and Global Issues
    • Energy Consumption and Industrial Degradation
    • Global Climate Change
    • Emissions and Global Warming
    • Climate Change
    • Environmental Anthropology
    • Global Assaults on Local Autonomy
    • Deforestation
    • Emerging Diseases
    • Interethnic Contact
    • Cultural Imperialism and Indigenization
    • A Global System of Images
    • A Global Culture of Consumption
    • People in Motion
    • Indigenous Peoples
    • Anthropology’s Lessons
    • Anthropology Today: Diversity under Siege: Global Forces and Indigenous Peoples
    • Summary

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

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