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Understanding Pharmacology: Essentials for Medication Safety

Understanding Pharmacology: Essentials for Medication Safety 1st Edition

By: M. Linda Workman, Linda LaCharity, Susan L. Kruchko
ISBN-10: 1416029176
/ ISBN-13: 9781416029175
Edition: 1st Edition
Language: English
				
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Front Matter

    • About the Authors
    • Dedication
    • Reviewers
    • Advisory Board
    • Preface
    • Chapter Organization
    • Learner-Friendly Instructional Design
    • Teaching and Learning Package
    • For Students
    • For Instructors
    • Acknowledgments
    • Special Features

Part One Overview of Pharmacology

    • chapter 1 Drug Actions and Body Responses
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Drug Therapy
    • Overview
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Drug Names
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Drug Categories
    • Over-the-Counter Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • Prescription Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    • High-Alert Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Herbal Products
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Drug Regulation
    •  Did You Know?
    • Ways in Which Drugs Affect the Body (Pharmacodynamics)
    • Mechanisms of Action
    • Receptors
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 1-1 Receptors controlling cell activity.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Receptor Agonists
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Receptor Antagonists
    • FIGURE 1-2 Cell with two different types of receptors, unbound and bound.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Nonreceptor Actions
    • Physiologic Effects
    • FIGURE 1-3 Comparison of cell activity when receptor sites are bound with different substances.
    • Intended Actions
    • Side Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Adverse Effects
    • FIGURE 1-4 Comparison of cell activity when receptor sites are bound with the naturally occurring substance (intrinsic drug) (A) and with an extrinsic drug that is an antagonist (B) (blocks the receptor site, preventing the naturally occurring substance from binding).
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Allergic Responses
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Personal/Idiosyncratic Responses
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • How the Body Uses and Changes Drugs (Pharmacokinetics)
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 1-5 Minimum effective concentration (MEC) and blood level needed to allow the intended action to occur.
    • FIGURE 1-6 Comparison of body levels of drug when drug entry and elimination are balanced and unbalanced.
    • Absorption
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Percutaneous Route
    • Table 1-1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Drug Entry Routes
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Enteral Route
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Parenteral Route
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Distribution
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Did You Know?
    • Metabolism
    • FIGURE 1-7 Major sites of drug metabolism and elimination.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention
    • Elimination
    •  Did You Know?
    • Table 1-2 Time Needed to Completely Eliminate a Drug with a Half-Life of 6 Hours
    • Half-Life
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 1-8 Peaks and troughs of blood drug levels. MEC, Minimum effective concentration.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Peaks and Troughs
    • Life Span Considerations
    • Size
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Organ Health
    • Liver Health
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Table 1-3 Laboratory Values for Liver Function
    • Table 1-4 Examples of Drugs with Longer Half-Lives in Older Adults
    • Table 1-5 Laboratory Tests Assessing Kidney Function
    • Kidney Health
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Cardiopulmonary Health
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Pregnancy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Table 1-6 Laboratory Tests Assessing Cardiovascular Function and Oxygenation
    • Table 1-7 Drug Pregnancy Categories
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Breastfeeding
    • Box 1-1
    • Recommended Methods of Reducing Infant Exposure to Drugs During Breastfeeding
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Drug Interactions
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 2 Safely Preparing and Giving Drugs
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • The Six Rights of Safe Drug Administration
    •  Memory Jogger
    • The Right Patient
    • The Right Drug
    • The Right Dose, Route, and Time
    •  Memory Jogger
    • The Right Documentation
    • The Right Diagnosis
    • The Right To Refuse
    • Types of Drug Orders
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Drug Errors
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Preventing Drug Errors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Bar-Code Systems
    • FIGURE 2-1 Checking a patient’s wristband with a bar-code scanner.
    • Box 2-1
    • Examples of Easily Confused Drug Names
    • Confusing Drug Name Lists
    •  Did You Know?
    • Reporting Drug Errors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Principles of Administering Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Getting Ready To Give Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Giving Enteral Drugs
    • Oral Drugs
    • What To Do Before Giving Oral Drugs
    • FIGURE 2-2 Calibrated devices for delivery of liquid oral drugs. A, Calibrated dropper and calibrated spoon. B, Calibrated oral syringe.
    • Box 2-2
    • Tips for Administering Drugs to Children
    • Do’s
    • Don’ts
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • FIGURE 2-3 Checking the drug dose in a medicine cup.
    • What To Do After Giving Oral Drugs
    • Oral Drugs Given by Feeding Tube
    • What To Do Before Giving Drugs by NG or PEG Tube
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Drugs by NG or PEG Tube
    • FIGURE 2-4 Sims’ left position. For this position, the patient lies on one side with the knee and thigh drawn upward toward the chest.
    • FIGURE 2-5 To administer a rectal suppository, push the suppository into the rectum about 1 inch.
    • Giving Rectal Drugs
    • What To Do Before Giving Rectal Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do After Giving Rectal Drugs
    • Giving Parenteral Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • FIGURE 2-6 A and B, Intradermal injection.
    • FIGURE 2-7 Close up of a needle with the bevel up.
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Giving Intradermal Drugs
    • What To Do Before Giving Intradermal Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Intradermal Drugs
    • Giving Subcutaneous Drugs
    • FIGURE 2-8 Subcutaneous injection.
    • FIGURE 2-9 Intramuscular injection.
    • FIGURE 2-10 Deltoid (arm) intramuscular injection site landmarks.
    • What To Do Before Giving Subcutaneous Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Subcutaneous Drugs
    • Giving Intramuscular Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • FIGURE 2-11 Dorsogluteal intramuscular injection site landmarks.
    • Table 2-1 Intramuscular Injection Site Advantages and Disadvantages
    • What To Do Before Giving Intramuscular Drugs
    • FIGURE 2-12 Vastus lateralis (thigh) intramuscular injection site landmarks.
    • FIGURE 2-13 Z-track intramuscular injection. A, Displace the tissue downward, away from the injection site. B, Inject while holding the tissue away. C, Allow the displaced tissue to move back into place.
    • FIGURE 2-14 Intravenous injection.
    • What To Do After Giving Intramuscular Drugs
    • Giving Intravenous Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do Before Giving Intravenous Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Intravenous Drugs
    • Giving Percutaneous Drugs
    • Giving Topical or Transdermal Drugs
    • What To Do Before Giving Topical or Transdermal Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Topical or Transdermal Drugs
    • FIGURE 2-15 Applying a transdermal patch. A, Nitroglycerin patch. B, Remove plastic backing carefully, taking care not to touch the medication. C, Place the medication side of the patch on the patient’s skin and press the adhesive to stay in place.
    • FIGURE 2-16 Giving buccal drugs.
    • Giving Drugs Through the Mucous Membranes
    • What To Do Before Giving Drugs Through the Mucous Membranes
    • Buccal and Sublingual Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Ear Drops
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Eye Drops and Ointments
    • Nose Drops
    • FIGURE 2-17 Giving sublingual drugs.
    • FIGURE 2-18 Giving ear drops.
    • Inhalers
    • Vaginal Drugs
    • What To Do After Giving Drugs Through the Mucous Membranes
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • chapter 3 Teaching Patients About Drug Therapy
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    • Communication for Teaching and Learning
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Cultural Sensitivity and Communication
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 3-1 The three domains of learning.
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Domains of Learning
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Box 3-1
    • Examples of Learning in the Different Domains
    • Teaching and Learning
    • Principles of Adult Learning: Patient Teaching
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Box 3-2
    • Adult Learner Characteristics and Expectations
    • Characteristics
    • Expectations
    • Box 3-3
    • Principles for Adult Learning
    • Believe in the Need To Know
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Start with the Known Before Moving to the Unknown
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Learning Goes from the Simple to the Complex
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Active Participation Is Needed
    • Practice Makes Perfect
    • Reinforce Learning
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Provide Early Feedback and Corrections
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Life Span Considerations
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Box 3-4
    • Tips for Teaching Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities

Part Two Mathematics in Pharmacology

    • chapter 4 Medical Systems of Weights and Measures
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    • Measuring Systems
    • Temperature: Fahrenheit and Celsius
    • Equation 1: Fahrenheit to Centigrade
    • FIGURE 4-1 Comparing Centigrade to Fahrenheit values with a mercury thermometer.
    • Equation 2: Centigrade to Fahrenheit
    •  Try This!
    • Household System for Liquid and Dry Measurements
    • Table 4-1 Abbreviations and Equivalents for the Household System of Measure
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Try This!
    • Metric System
    • Metric Basics
    • Box 4-1
    • Metric Equivalents
    • Dry
    • Liquid
    • Length
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Metric Abbreviations
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Switching Between Household and Metric Systems
    • Table 4-2 Metric Prefixes and Abbreviations
    • Box 4-2
    • Household-to-Metric Equivalents
    • Dry Weight
    • Length
    • Liquid
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Try This!
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Try This!
    •  Try This!
    • The Milliequivalent System
    •  Try This!
    • The Unit System
    • Insulin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Heparin
    •  Try This!
    • Two-Step Drug Dosage Calculations
    •  Try This!
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Answers To Try This! Problems
    • TT-1 Convert the Fahrenheit temperature to Centigrade and the Centigrade to Fahrenheit
    • TT-2 Calculate the response in teaspoons or drops
    • TT-3 Convert the following weights in pounds to kilograms and the weights in kilograms to pounds
    • TT-4 Convert these household measures in metric equivalents, rounding to the nearest tenth when necessary
    • TT-5 Convert these metric measures into household equivalents
    • TT-6 Calculate how much drug you should administer
    • TT-7 Calculate how many milliliters you should give
    • TT-8 Calculate how many milligrams in how many teaspoons you should give to a baby who weighs 7 lb
    • chapter 5 Mathematics Review and Introduction to Dosage Calculation
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • FIGURE 5-1 Comparison of part of a number to a whole number.
    • Why do Nurses Need Mathematics?
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Talking about Numbers: a Whole Number Versus a Part of a Number
    • Fractions
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Different Types of Fractions
    • Proper Fractions
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Improper Fractions
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Mixed-Number Fractions
    •  Try This!
    • Reduced Fractions
    • FIGURE 5-2 Fraction sizes.
    •  Try This!
    • Reducing Special Fractions
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Try This!
    • Comparing Fractions
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Try This!
    • Adding Fractions
    •  Try This!
    •  Try This!
    • Subtracting Fractions
    •  Try This!
    •  Try This!
    • Multiplying Fractions
    •  Try This!
    • Dividing Fractions
    •  Try This!
    • Decimals
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Try This!
    • Adding and Subtracting Decimals
    • Table 5-1 Decimal Table and Conversions
    • Multiplying Decimals
    •  Try This!
    • Dividing Decimals
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Try This!
    • Changing Fractions into Decimals
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Changing Decimals into Fractions
    •  Try This!
    • Rounding Parts of Numbers
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Try This!
    • Percents
    •  Did You Know?
    • Converting a Percent to a Decimal
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Converting a Percent to a Fraction
    •  Try This!
    • Finding the Percentage of a Number
    •  Try This!
    • Solving Dosage and Calculation Problems
    • Introduction
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Oral Drugs
    • Formula 1
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Try This!
    • Formula 2
    •  Try This!
    • Drugs Given by Injection
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Try This!
    • Using Proportions to Solve for X
    •  Try This!
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Try This!
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Answers to Try This! Problems
    • TT-1 Change these mixed-number fractions into improper fractions
    • TT-2 Reduce each of these fractions to their lowest common denominators
    • TT-3 How many zeros can you chop and drop?
    • TT-4 Which fraction represents the largest part of the whole?
    • TT-5 Add these fractions. If a sum is an improper fraction, convert it to a mixed-number fraction
    • TT-6 Add these fractions. If the sum is an improper fraction, convert it to either a whole number or a mixed-number fraction
    • TT-7 Subtract these fractions. If a fraction is a mixed-number fraction, first convert it to an improper fraction. Reduce answers to their lowest common denominators
    • TT-8 Subtract these fractions. If a fraction is a mixed-number fraction, first convert it to an improper fraction. Reduce answers to their lowest common denominators
    • TT-9 Multiply these fractions
    • TT-10 Divide these fractions
    • TT-11 Decimals as parts of a whole
    • TT-12 Multiply these decimals
    • TT-13 Divide these decimals
    • TT-14 Change the following fractions to decimals and the decimals to fractions
    • TT-15 Work to three places and then round to two places
    • TT-16 Convert the following percents into fractions
    • TT-17 Find the percentages of the whole numbers
    • TT-18 How many tablets should you give?
    • TT-19 How many milliliters should you give?
    • TT-20 How many milliliters should you give by injection?
    • TT-21 Express the following problems as a fractional proportion
    • TT-22 How many milliliters should you give?
    • chapter 6 Dosage Calculation of Intravenous Solutions and Drugs
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 6-1 Drop size differences between a macrodrip chamber and a microdrip chamber on IV tubing.
    • IV Mechanics
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 6-2 IV tubing administration sets. A, Administration set connected to an IV solution bag. B, Photo of an actual IV tubing administration set. C, Detail of IV tubing administration set.
    • Regulating IV Fluids
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 6-3 Examples of IV infusion pumps. A, Pump alone, not in use. B, Pump with IV set attached.
    • FIGURE 6-4 An IV solution bag (1000 mL) with the label from the bag enlarged and illustrated on the right.
    • FIGURE 6-5 Appearances of tissues after IV infiltration (A) and after extravasation (B).
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Memory Jogger
    • IV Calculations
    • Macrodrip Formula
    •  Try This!
    • The Macrodrip Tubing Shortcut
    •  Try This!
    • Microdrip Formula
    •  Try This!
    • The 15-Second Rule
    •  Try This!
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Maintaining IV Therapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Infusion Control Devices
    • IV Therapy Responsibilities
    • Infection
    • FIGURE 6-6 Syringe pump used to control IV push drugs.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Tissue Damage
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Imbalances of Fluid and Electrolytes
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Life Span Considerations
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Box 6-1
    • IV Therapy Safety for the Older Adult
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • Answers To Try This! Problems
    • TT-1 Calculate the milliliters to be infused in 1 hour given the following orders
    • TT-2 Calculate the drip rate using the macrodrip tubing shortcut
    • TT-3 Calculate the drops per minute needed to get the right volume per hour
    • TT-4 Calculate the 15-second drip rate for each of these problems

Part Three Clinical Categories and Uses of Drugs

    • chapter 7 Drugs for Pain and Sleep Problems
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Pain
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 7-1 Examples of patient pain-rating scales. A, Simple descriptive pain scale. B, Numeric pain distress scale. C, Visual analog scale.
    • FIGURE 7-2 The Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale for children and nonverbal adults.
    • Box 7-1
    • Barriers to Good Pain Management
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 7-3 The FLACC pain rating scale for infants and patients who are not alert.
    • FIGURE 7-4 A sensory pathway for pain perception.
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Pain Origin and Transmission
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 7-5 Sensory nerve endings (nociceptors) triggered by different types of stimuli to send pain messages to the brain.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Pain Perception
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Types of Pain
    • Acute Pain
    • Table 7-1 Comparison of Acute and Chronic Pain Features
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Chronic Pain
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Cancer Pain
    • Box 7-2
    • Main Features of Cancer Pain
    • General Issues Related to Analgesic Drug Therapy
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Table 7-2 Classification of Controlled Substances (United States)
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 7-6 Examples of patient pain-relief rating scales. A, Pain-relief visual analog scale. B, Percent pain-relief scale.
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Opioids (Narcotics)
    • Dosages for Common Opioids
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • OxyContin with MS Contin
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • hydromorphone with morphine
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • tramadol with Toradol
    • How Opioids Work
    •  Did You Know?
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Opioids
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do Before Giving Opioids
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Opioids
    • What To Teach Patients About Opioids
    • Life Span Considerations for Opioids
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
    • Dosages for Common NSAIDs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • ketorolac with Ketalar
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Celebrex with Celexa
    • How NSAIDs Work
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • NSAIDs
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving NSAIDs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving NSAIDs
    • What To Teach Patients About NSAIDs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for NSAIDs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • Nonopioid Miscellaneous Pain-Control Drugs
    • Acetaminophen
    • Important Issues
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Acetaminophen
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Antidepressants
    • Important Issues
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antidepressants
    • Life Span Considerations for Antidepressants
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Anticonvulsants
    • Important Issues
    • Common Side Effects
    • Anticonvulsants
    • Life Span Considerations for Anticonvulsants
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Insomnia
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Did You Know?
    • Table 7-3 Stages of Sleep
    • Box 7-3
    • Causes of Sleep Problems
    • Acute Sleep Problems
    • Chronic Sleep Problems
    • Drugs for Insomnia
    • Dosages for Common Drugs for Insomnia
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • trazodone with tramadol
    • How Drugs for Insomnia Work
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Drugs for Insomnia
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Drugs for Insomnia
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Drugs for Insomnia
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Drugs for Insomnia
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Drugs for Insomnia
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Narcolepsy
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Drugs for Narcolepsy
    • Dosages for Common Drugs for Narcolepsy
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Ritalin with ritodrine
    • How Drugs for Narcolepsy Work
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Stimulatory Drugs for Narcolepsy
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Drugs for Narcolepsy
    • What To Do After Giving Drugs for Narcolepsy
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Drugs for Narcolepsy
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations with Drugs for Narcolepsy
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 8 Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Table 8-1 The Stages of Inflammation
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Stage I: Vascular
    • Stage II: Exudate
    • Stage III: Tissue Repair
    • FIGURE 8-1 Arachidonic acid cascade and mediator production.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Did You Know?
    • Types of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Corticosteroids
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages of Common Corticosteroids
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • prednisoLONE with predniSONE or methylprednisoLONE
    • How Systemic Corticosteroids Work
    • Intended Responses
    • FIGURE 8-2 Physical changes from long-term corticosteroid therapy, known as a “Cushingoid” appearance.
    • Box 8-1 Common Side Effects of Systemic Corticosteroids
    • Side Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Common Side Effects
    • Systemic Corticosteroids
    • Adverse Effects
    • FIGURE 8-3 Corticosteroid influence on adrenal production of cortisol.
    • Box 8-2 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Adrenal Insufficiency
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do Before Giving Corticosteroids
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Corticosteroids
    • What To Teach Patients About Corticosteroids
    • Issues with Topical Corticosteroids
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Corticosteroids
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding.
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
    • Dosages for Common COX-1 Inhibitors
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • ketorolac with Ketalar
    • Dosages for Common Cox-2 Inhibitors
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Celebrex with Celexa
    • How NSAIDs Work
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • NSAIDs
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving NSAIDs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • What To Do After Giving NSAIDs
    • What To Teach Patients About NSAIDs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for NSAIDs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Antihistamines
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Antihistamines
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Zyrtec with Zyban or Zantac
    • How Antihistamines Work
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • H1 Histamine Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    • FIGURE 8-4 Cells showing histamine receptors and leukotriene receptors.
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do Before Giving Antihistamines
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Antihistamines
    • What To Teach Patients About Antihistamines
    • Leukotriene Inhibitors
    • How Leukotriene Inhibitors Work
    • Dosages for Common Leukotriene Inhibitors
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Zyflo with Zyban or Zyrtec
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Leukotriene Inhibitors
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Leukotriene Inhibitors
    • What To Do After Giving Leukotriene Inhibitors
    • What To Teach Patients About Leukotriene Inhibitors
    • Life Span Considerations for Leukotriene Inhibitors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 9 Anti-Infectives: Antibacterial Drugs
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Bacterial Features
    • FIGURE 9-1 The surface of a bacterium, its membrane, and its internal features. F → T, metabolic conversion of folic acid to thymine.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Protection Against Infection
    • FIGURE 9-2 A white blood cell compares the surface recognition codes of all four cells and recognizes that three of them are normal body cells but the red one has a different code. It is an invader and must be attacked by the white blood cell. GI, Gastrointestinal.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Antibacterial Therapy
    • Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Spectrum of Efficacy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • General Issues in Antibacterial Therapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Antibacterial Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and Other Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors
    •  Did You Know?
    • How Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors Work
    • FIGURE 9-3 Bacterial targets of different types of antibacterial drugs. F → T, metabolic conversion of folic acid to thymine.
    • Table 9-1 Actions of Antibacterial Agents
    • Table 9-2 Cephalosporins by Drug Generation
    • Dosages for Common Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Penicillins and Cephalosporins
    • Common Side Effects
    • Carbapenems and Vancomycin
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors
    • What To Teach Patients About Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Life Span Considerations for Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Aminoglycosides, Macrolides, Tetracyclines, and Other Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    • How Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Work
    • Dosages of Common Aminoglycosides
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Amikin with anakinra
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • gentamicin with gentian violet
    • Dosages for Common Macrolides
    • Dosages for Common Tetracyclines
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Vibramycin with ribavirin
    • Dosages for Other Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Common Side Effects
    • Macrolides
    • Common Side Effects
    • Tetracyclines
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What to Do Before Giving Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Macrolides
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Tetracyclines
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Other Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Macrolides
    • Tetracyclines
    • Other Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    • What To Teach Patients About Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Macrolides
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Tetracyclines
    • Other Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Life Span Considerations for Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Metabolism Inhibitors: Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim
    • How Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim Work
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • sulfADIAZINE with sulfiSOXAZOLE
    • Dosages for Common Sulfonamides, Trimethoprim, and Combination Drugs
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Metabolism Inhibitors
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Cultural Awareness
    • What To Do Before Giving Sulfonamides or Trimethoprim
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Sulfonamides or Trimethoprim
    •  Cultural Awareness
    • What To Teach Patients About Sulfonamides or Trimethoprim
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Sulfonamides or Trimethoprim
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • DNA Synthesis Inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
    • How Fluoroquinolones Work
    • Dosages for Common Fluoroquinolones
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Tequin with Tegretol or Ticlid
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Fluoroquinolones
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Fluoroquinolones
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Fluoroquinolones
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Fluoroquinolones
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Fluoroquinolones
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Antibacterial Drug Resistance
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Examples of MDR Organisms
    • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Other Organisms of Disease Resulting from Multidrug Resistance
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 10 Anti-Infectives: Antiviral Drugs
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Viral Infection
    • FIGURE 10-1 Common entry sites for viruses.
    • FIGURE 10-2 The basic anatomy of a common virus.
    •  Did You Know?
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology for Common Viruses
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 10-3 Steps in the cycle of infection for common viruses.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 10-4 An infected cell generates new viruses and then opens the cell and sends newly generated viruses out to infect more host cells.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • General Issues in Antiviral Therapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Types of Antiviral Drugs
    • Dosages for Common Antiviral Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Zovirax with Zyvox
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Valtrex with Valcyte
    • Acyclovir and Valacyclovir
    • How Acyclovir and Valacyclovir Work
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Acyclovir and Valacyclovir
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Acyclovir or Valacyclovir
    • Table 10-1 Diseases Caused by Specific Viruses
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Interaction Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Acyclovir or Valacyclovir
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Acyclovir or Valacyclovir
    • Life Span Considerations for Acyclovir or Valacyclovir
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Amantadine and Rimantadine
    • How Amantadine and Rimantadine Work
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Amantadine and Rimantadine
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Amantadine or Rimantadine
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Teach Patients About Amantadine or Rimantadine
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Amantadine or Rimantadine
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Ribavirin
    • How Ribavirin Works
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Ribavirin
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do Before Giving Ribavirin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Ribavirin
    • What To Teach Patients About Ribavirin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations with Ribavirin
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Oseltamivir and Zanamivir
    • How Oseltamivir and Zanamivir Work
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Oseltamivir
    • Common Side Effects
    • Zanamivir
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Teach Patients About Oseltamivir or Zanamivir
    • Box 10-1
    • Preparation of Oseltamivir Oral Suspension
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Retroviral Infection
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 10-5 The components of the human immune deficiency retrovirus.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • General Issues in Antiretroviral Therapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 10-6 Sites in the life cycle of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in which different antiretroviral drugs work. NRTI, nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor.
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    •  Cultural Awareness
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Types of Antiretroviral Drugs
    • Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
    • How NRTIs Work
    • Dosages for Common NRTIs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • lamivudine with lamotrigine
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Retrovir with ritonavir
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • NRTIs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Teach Patients About NRTIs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for NRTIs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Box 10-2
    • Patient Teaching Guide for Peripheral Neuropathy
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
    • How NNRTIs Work
    • Dosages for Common NNRTIs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Viramune with Viracept
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • NNRTIs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Teach Patients About NNRTIs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for NNRTIs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Protease Inhibitors
    • How Protease Inhibitors Work
    • Dosages for Common Protease Inhibitors
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Viracept with Viramune
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • ritonavir with Retrovir
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • saquinavir with Sinequan
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Protease Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Teach Patients About Protease Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Protease Inhibitors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Fusion Inhibitors
    • How Fusion Inhibitors Work
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Enfuvirtide
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Teach Patients About Enfuvirtide
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Enfuvirtide
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Entry Inhibitors
    • How Entry Inhibitors Work
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Maraviroc
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Teach Patients About Maraviroc
    • Life Span Considerations for Maraviroc
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Integrase Inhibitors
    • Box 10-3
    • Fall Precautions
    • How Integrase Inhibitors Work
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Raltegravir
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Raltegravir
    • Life Span Considerations for Raltegravir
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 11 Anti-Infectives: Antitubercular and Antifungal Drugs
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Tuberculosis
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Did You Know?
    • FIGURE 11-1 Primary TB infection with progression to secondary infection and active disease. HIV, Human immune deficiency virus; TB, tuberculosis.
    • FIGURE 11-2 A positive tuberculosis skin test.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Drugs for Tuberculosis
    • First-Line Antitubercular Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Memory Jogger
    • How First-Line Antitubercular Drugs Work
    • FIGURE 11-3 Probable sites of drug activity against the TB organism. ATP, Adenosine triphosphate; TB, tuberculosis.
    • Dosages for Common First-Line Antitubercular Drugs
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • First-Line Antitubercular Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do Before Giving First-Line Antitubercular Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving First-Line Antitubercular Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About First-Line Antitubercular Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for First-Line Antitubercular Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Fungal Infections
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Did You Know?
    • Types of Antifungal Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Drugs for Superficial Fungal Infections
    • FIGURE 11-4 Sites of antifungal drug activity. F → T, metabolic conversion of folic acid to thymine.
    • Table 11-1 Diseases Caused by Specific Fungal Infections
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Drugs for Deep or Systemic Fungal Infections
    •  Memory Jogger
    • How Antifungal Drugs Work
    • Box 11-1
    • Patient Teaching Tips for Topical Antifungal Agents
    • General
    • Powders
    • Skin Creams, Lotions, Ointments
    • Oral Lozenges
    • Vaginal Creams or Suppositories
    • FIGURE 11-5 Intact fungal cell plasma membrane (left) and the effects of azoles, polyenes, and allylamines on fungal cell membranes (right).
    • Dosages for Common Antifungal Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Lamisil with Lamictal
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antifungal Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do Before Giving Antifungal Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Antifungal Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Antifungal Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Antifungal Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 12 Drugs That Affect Urine Output
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Diuretics
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • FIGURE 12-1 Sites of diuretic action on the kidney and nephrons.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • General Issues in Diuretic Therapy
    • Types of Diuretics
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Thiazide Diuretics
    • How Thiazide Diuretics Work
    • Dosages for Common Thiazide Diuretics
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Thiazide Diuretics
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Thiazide Diuretics
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Thiazide Diuretics
    • Table 12-1 Normal Blood Electrolyte Values
    • What To Teach Patients About Thiazide Diuretics
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Thiazide Diuretics
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Loop Diuretics
    • How Loop Diuretics Work
    • Dosages for Common Loop Diuretics
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Lasix with Luvox
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Loop Diuretics
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Loop Diuretics
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Loop Diuretics
    • What To Teach Patients About Loop Diuretics
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Loop Diuretics
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    • How Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Work
    • Dosages for Common Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    • What To Teach Patients About Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    •  Did You Know?
    • Life Span Considerations for Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Overactive Bladder
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • FIGURE 12-2 Pathophysiology of overactive bladder.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Drugs for Overactive Bladder
    • Urinary Antispasmodics
    • How Urinary Antispasmodics Work
    • Dosages for Common Urinary Antispasmodics
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Urinary Antispasmodics
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Urinary Antispasmodics
    • What To Do After Giving Urinary Antispasmodics
    • What To Teach Patients About Urinary Antispasmodics
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Urinary Antispasmodics
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • FIGURE 12-3 A, Normal prostate gland. B, Enlarged prostate gland showing the narrowing of the urethra, decreasing urine flow.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Drugs for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    • DHT Inhibitors and Selective Alpha-1 Blockers
    • How Drugs for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Work
    • Dosages for Common Drugs for BPH
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Drugs for BPH
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Drugs for BPH
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Drugs for BPH
    • What To Teach Patients About Drugs for BPH
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Drugs for BPH
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 13 Drugs for Hypertension
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    • Table 13-1 Blood Pressure Classification
    • Box 13-1
    • Lifestyle Changes for Treating Hypertension
    • FIGURE 13-1 Atherosclerosis.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis
    •  Did You Know?
    • Primary (Essential) Hypertension
    • Secondary Hypertension
    • Table 13-2 Causes of Hypertension
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • General Issues for Antihypertensive Therapy
    • Box 13-2
    • Guidelines for Prescribing Antihypertensive Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Types of Antihypertensive Drugs
    • Diuretics
    • How Diuretics Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Diuretics
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Diuretics
    • What To Do After Giving Diuretics
    • What To Teach Patients About Diuretics
    • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
    • How ACE Inhibitors Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 13-2 Function of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
    • Dosages for Common ACE Inhibitors
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Accupril with Aciphex
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Zestril with Zetia
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • FIGURE 13-3 Angioedema.
    • Common Side Effects
    • ACE Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving ACE Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Do After Giving ACE Inhibitors
    • What To Teach Patients About ACE Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for ACE Inhibitors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
    • How Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Angiotensin-II Receptor Antagonists
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Cozaar with Colace or Zocor
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
    • What To Do After Giving Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Teach Patients About Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
    • Life Span Considerations for Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Calcium Channel Blockers
    • How Calcium Channel Blockers Work
    • Dosages for Common Calcium Channel Blockers
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • niCARdipine with NIFEdipine
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Norvasc with Navane
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Calcium Channel Blockers
    • What To Do After Giving Calcium Channel Blockers
    • FIGURE 13-4 Hand lesions of Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
    • What To Teach Patients About Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Life Span Considerations for Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Beta Blockers
    • How Beta Blockers Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Beta Blockers for Hypertension
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Inderal with Adderall
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Toprol XL with Topamax
    • FIGURE 13-5 Potential sites of action for beta blockers.
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Beta Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Beta Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Beta Blockers
    • What To Teach Patients About Beta Blockers
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Beta Blockers
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Monitoring Alert
    • Alpha Blockers
    • How Alpha Blockers Work
    • Dosages for Common Alpha Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • FIGURE 13-6 Alpha-1 blockers fill alpha-1 receptor sites, preventing neurotransmitters from binding. With fewer receptors being stimulated, vasoconstriction is prevented or reversed and blood pressure is lowered. BP, Blood pressure.
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Alpha Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Alpha Blockers
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Alpha Blockers
    • What To Teach Patients About Alpha Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Alpha Blockers
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Alpha-Beta Blockers
    • How Alpha-Beta Blockers Work
    • Dosages for Common Alpha-Beta Blockers
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Alpha-Beta Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Alpha-Beta Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Alpha-Beta Blockers
    • What To Teach Patients About Alpha-Beta Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Alpha-Beta Blockers
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Central-Acting Adrenergic Agents
    • How Central-Acting Adrenergic Agents Work
    • Dosages for Common Central-Acting Adrenergic Agents
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Central-Acting Adrenergic Agents
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Central-Acting Adrenergic Agents
    • What To Do After Giving Central-Acting Adrenergic Agents
    • What To Teach Patients About Central-Acting Adrenergic Agents
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Central-Acting Adrenergic Agents
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Direct Vasodilators
    • How Direct Vasodilators Work
    • Dosages for Common Direct Vasodilators
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Direct Vasodilators
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Direct Vasodilators
    • What To Do After Giving Direct Vasodilators
    • What To Teach Patients About Direct Vasodilators
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Direct Vasodilators
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 14 Drugs for Heart Failure
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    •  Did You Know?
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • FIGURE 14-1 Heart chambers and valves.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 14-2 Normal heart and heart with heart failure.
    • FIGURE 14-3 Signs and symptoms of heart failure and peripheral and pulmonary congestion.
    • Left Heart Failure
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Box 14-1
    • Signs and Symptoms of Left Heart Failure
    • Decreased Cardiac Output
    • Pulmonary Congestion
    • Box 14-2
    • Signs and Symptoms of Right Heart Failure
    • Systemic Congestion
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Right Heart Failure
    • Compensatory Mechanisms for Heart Failure
    • FIGURE 14-4 Jugular vein distention (JVD).
    • FIGURE 14-5 Pathophysiology of heart failure.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Treatment for Heart Failure
    •  Memory Jogger
    • General Issues in Heart Failure Therapy
    •  Did You Know?
    • Types of Drugs Used to Treat Heart Failure
    •  Memory Jogger
    • ACE Inhibitors
    • Dosages for Common ACE Inhibitors for Heart Failure
    • Beta Blockers
    • How Beta Blockers Work
    • Dosages for Common Beta Blockers for Heart Failure
    • Vasodilators
    • How Vasodilators Work
    • Dosages for Common Vasodilators for Heart Failure
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Apresoline with Priscoline
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Isordil with Plendil
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Vasodilators
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Vasodilators
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Vasodilators
    • What To Teach Patients About Vasodilators
    • FIGURE 14-6 Application of nitroglycerin ointment. A, Check ointment dose and paper. B, Apply dose to the paper. C, Apply paper with the drug to the patient. D, Appropriate sites for drug application.
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Vasodilators
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Cardiac Glycosides (Digoxin)
    • How Cardiac Glycosides Work
    • Dosages for Common Cardiac Glycosides
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Digoxin
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Cardiac Glycosides
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Did You Know?
    • What To Do After Giving Cardiac Glycosides
    • What To Teach Patients About Cardiac Glycosides
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Cardiac Glycosides
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Diuretics
    • Dosages for Common Potassium-Sparing Diuretics for Heart Failure
    • Human B-Type Natriuretic Peptides
    • How Natriuretic Peptides Work
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages for Common Natriuretic Peptides for Heart Failure
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Natriuretic Peptides
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Nesiritide
    • What To Do After Giving Nesiritide
    • What To Teach Patients About Nesiritide
    • Life Span Considerations for Nesiritide
    • Positive Inotropes (Heart Pump Drugs)
    • How Positive Inotropes Work
    • Dosages for Common Positive Inotropes
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • DOPamine with DOBUTamine
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Positive Inotropes
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Positive Inotropes
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Positive Inotropes
    • What To Teach Patients About Positive Inotropes
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Positive Inotropes
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Potassium and Magnesium
    • How Potassium and Magnesium Work
    • Dosages for Common Potassium and Magnesium Supplements
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Table 14-1 Normal Electrolyte Values
    • Common Side Effects
    • Potassium and Magnesium
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Potassium or Magnesium
    • What To Do After Giving Potassium or Magnesium
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Teach Patients About Potassium and Magnesium
    • Box 14-3
    • Dietary Sources of Potassium
    • Box 14-4
    • Dietary Sources of Magnesium
    • Life Span Considerations for Potassium and Magnesium
    • Other Drugs Used to Treat Heart Failure
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 15 Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Pacemakers and the Cardiac Conduction System
    • FIGURE 15-1 Blood flow through the heart.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Heart Rate
    • Normal Heart Rhythm
    • FIGURE 15-2 Electrical conduction system of the heart.
    • FIGURE 15-3 Normal sinus rhythm of the heart.
    • Table 15-1 Normal Heart Rates
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dysrhythmias
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Box 15-1
    • List of Common Dysrhythmias
    • Atrial
    • Ventricular
    • Junctional
    • Heart Blocks
    • Box 15-2
    • Common Symptoms of Dysrhythmias
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Dysrhythmia Symptoms
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Risk Factors for Dysrhythmias
    • FIGURE 15-4 Location of the apical pulse.
    • Box 15-3
    • Risk Factors for Developing Dysrhythmias
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Measuring the Heart Rate
    • General Issues Related to Antidysrhythmic Therapy
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Types of Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    • Atropine for Bradydysrhythmias
    • How Atropine Works on the Heart
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 15-5 Checking the radial pulse.
    • Dosage for Atropine
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Atropine
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do Before Giving Atropine
    • What To Do After Giving Atropine
    • What To Teach Patients About Atropine
    • Life Span Considerations for Atropine
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Pediatric and Older Adult Considerations
    • Digoxin
    • How Digoxin Works
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Digoxin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Digoxin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Digoxin
    • What To Teach Patients About Digoxin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Digoxin
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Table 15-2 Normal Blood Electrolyte Levels
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Drugs for Tachydysrhythmias
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Class I: Sodium Channel Blockers
    • Class Ia Drugs
    • How Class Ia Drugs Work
    • Table 15-3 Classes of Common Antidysrhythmic Drugs for Tachydysrhythmias
    • Dosages for Common Class Ia Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • quinidine with quinine
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Class Ia Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Class Ia Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • FIGURE 15-6 Pitting edema scale.
    • What To Do After Giving Class Ia Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Class Ia Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Class Ia Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Class Ib Drugs
    • How Class Ib Drugs Work
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Dosages for Common Class Ib Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Class Ib Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Class Ib Drugs
    • What To Do After Giving Class Ib Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Class Ib Drugs
    • Life Span Considerations for Class Ib Drugs
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Class Ic Drugs
    • How Class Ic Drugs Work
    • Dosages of Common Class Ic Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Class Ic Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Class Ic Drugs
    • What To Do After Giving Class Ic Drugs
    • What To Teach Patients About Class Ic Drugs
    • Life Span Considerations for Class Ic Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Class II: Beta Blockers
    • How Beta Blockers Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Class II Beta Blocker Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Inderal with Adderall
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Beta Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Beta Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Beta Blockers
    • What To Teach Patients About Beta Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Beta Blockers
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Class III: Potassium Channel Blockers
    • How Potassium Channel Blockers Work
    • Dosages of Common Class III Potassium Channel Blockers
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Class III Potassium Channel Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Potassium Channel Blockers
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do After Giving Potassium Channel Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Potassium Channel Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Monitoring Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Potassium Channel Blockers
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Pediatric and Older Adult Considerations
    • Class IV: Calcium Channel Blockers
    • How Calcium Channel Blockers Work
    • Dosages of Common Class IV Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Calcium Channel Blockers
    • What To Do After Giving Calcium Channel Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Monitoring Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Life Span Considerations for Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Unclassified Antidysrhythmic Drugs
    • Adenosine
    • How Adenosine Works
    • Dosages for Adenosine
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Adenosine
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Adenosine
    • What To Do After Giving Adenosine
    • What To Teach Patients About Adenosine
    • Life Span Considerations for Adenosine
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Magnesium Sulfate
    • How Magnesium Sulfate Works
    • Dosages for Magnesium Sulfate
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Magnesium Sulfate
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Magnesium Sulfate
    • What To Do After Giving Magnesium Sulfate
    • What To Teach Patients About Magnesium Sulfate
    • Life Span Considerations for Magnesium Sulfate
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Other Drugs Used to Treat Dysrhythmias
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 16 Drugs for High Blood Lipids
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Coronary Artery Disease
    • Familial Hyperlipidemia
    • FIGURE 16-1 Cholesterol is produced by the liver, but it is also consumed in meat and dairy products.
    • FIGURE 16-2 Cholesterol can form plaques that narrow arteries. A, Normal, clean artery. B, Artery with plaque formation.
    • Table 16-1 Lipid Profile Normal Values
    • Table 16-2 Lipid Values and Risk for Coronary Artery Disease
    •  Memory Jogger
    • General Issues for Antihyperlipidemic Therapy
    • Table 16-3 Normal Liver Function Values
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Lipid-Lowering Drugs
    • Statins
    • How Statins Work
    • Dosages for Common Statins
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Zocor with Cozaar
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • FIGURE 16-3 The action of statins to lower blood lipid levels.
    • Common Side Effects
    • Statins
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Statins
    • What To Do After Giving Statins
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Statins
    • Life Span Considerations for Statins
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • FIGURE 16-4 The action of bile acid sequestrants to lower blood lipid levels.
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Bile Acid Sequestrants
    • How Bile Acid Sequestrants Work
    • Dosages for Common Bile Acid Sequestrants
    • Intended Responses
    •  Did You Know?
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Bile Acid Sequestrants
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Bile Acid Sequestrants
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Bile Acid Sequestrants
    • What To Teach Patients About Bile Acid Sequestrants
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Bile Acid Sequestrants
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • FIGURE 16-5 The action of cholesterol absorption inhibitors to lower blood lipid levels.
    • Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors
    • How Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors Work
    • Dosage for Common Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitor
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors
    • What To Do After Giving Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors
    • What To Teach Patients About Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Fibrates
    • How Fibrates Work
    • Dosages for Common Fibrates
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Fibrates
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Fibrates
    • What To Do After Giving Fibrates
    • What To Teach Patients About Fibrates
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Fibrates
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Nicotinic Acid Agents
    • How Nicotinic Acid Agents Work
    • Dosages for Common Nicotinic Acid Agents
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Nicotinic Acid Agents
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Nicotinic Acid Agents
    • What To Do After Giving Nicotinic Acid Agents
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Nicotinic Acid Agents
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Nicotinic Acid Agents
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 17 Drugs That Affect Blood Clotting
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Clot Formation
    • Thrombosis
    • Table 17-1 Normal and Therapeutic Coagulation Values
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Embolus
    •  Did You Know?
    • FIGURE 17-1 The clotting cascade. RBC, Red blood cell.
    • FIGURE 17-2 Thrombus and embolus.
    • FIGURE 17-3 Pulmonary embolism.
    • General Issues for Anticoagulant Therapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Types of Drugs that Affect Blood Clotting
    • Anticoagulant Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Thrombin Inhibitors
    • How Thrombin Inhibitors Work
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages for Common Thrombin Inhibitors
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • heparin with Hespan
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Thrombin Inhibitors
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do Before Giving Thrombin Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Box 17-1
    • Factors That Increase Bleeding Risk with Anticoagulant Therapy
    • FIGURE 17-4 Injection technique for low-molecular-weight heparin.
    • What To Do After Giving Thrombin Inhibitors
    • What To Teach Patients About Thrombin Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Thrombin Inhibitors
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Clotting Factor Synthesis Inhibitors
    • How Clotting Factor Synthesis Inhibitors Work
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Clotting Factor Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Clotting Factor Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Adverse Effects
    • FIGURE 17-5 Warfarin-induced skin necrosis.
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Clotting Factor Synthesis Inhibitors
    • What To Do After Giving Clotting Factor Synthesis Inhibitors
    • What To Teach Patients About Clotting Factor Synthesis Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Clotting Factor Synthesis Inhibitors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Antiplatelet Drugs
    • How Antiplatelet Drugs Work
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages for Common Antiplatelet Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Aggrastat with Argatroban
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Ticlid with Tequin
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antiplatelet Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Antiplatelet Drugs
    • What To Do After Giving Antiplatelet Drugs
    • What To Teach Patients About Antiplatelet Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Antiplatelet Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Thrombolytic Drugs
    • How Thrombolytic Drugs Work
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Dosages for Common Thrombolytic Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Activase (t-PA) with tenecteplase (TNKase)
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Thrombolytic Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Thrombolytic Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Thrombolytic Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Box 17-2
    • Contraindications for Thrombolytic Drugs
    • Absolute Contraindications
    • Relative Contraindications
    • What To Teach Patients About Thrombolytic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Thrombolytic Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Drugs That Improve Blood Clotting
    • Colony-Stimulating Factors
    • How Colony-Stimulating Factors Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Colony-Stimulating Factors
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Colony-Stimulating Factors
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Colony-Stimulating Factors
    • What To Do After Giving Colony-Stimulating Factors
    • What To Teach Patients About Colony-Stimulating Factors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Colony-Stimulating Factors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 18 Drugs for Asthma and Other Respiratory Problems
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    • FIGURE 18-1 Normal anatomy of the lungs.
    • FIGURE 18-2 Close-up view of one small airway with attached alveoli.
    • FIGURE 18-3 Cross section of a small airway showing the tissue layers.
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Asthma
    • FIGURE 18-4 Different causes of narrowed airways. A, Mucosal swelling. B, Constriction of smooth muscle. C, Mucosal swelling and constriction of smooth muscle. D, Mucus plug.
    • Table 18-1 Tests Used to Measure Breathing Effectiveness
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • Types of Drugs for Asthma and Copd
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 18-5 A peak flow meter. This model will show faster exhalation rates in green, reduced exhalation rates in yellow, and seriously reduced exhalation rates in red.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Bronchodilators
    • How Bronchodilators Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages for Common Bronchodilators
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Brethine with Methergine
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Bronchodilators
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Bronchodilators
    • FIGURE 18-6 Patient using an aerosol inhaler with a spacer.
    • Box 18-1
    • Teaching Tips for Using an Aerosol Inhaler with a Spacer
    • Box 18-2
    • Teaching Tips for Using an Aerosol Inhaler Without a Spacer*
    • Preferred Technique
    • Alternative Method
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Bronchodilators
    • Box 18-3
    • Teaching Tips for Using a Dry-Powder Inhaler
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Bronchodilators
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Bronchodilators
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • FIGURE 18-7 Checking the drug level in an aerosol inhaler.
    • Anti-inflammatory Drugs
    • How Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Respiratory Problems Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Anti-inflammatory Drugs for Asthma and COPD
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Zyflo with Zyrtec or Zyban
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Inhaled Anti-inflammatory Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Respiratory Problems
    • What To Do After Giving Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Respiratory Problems
    • What To Teach Patients About Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Respiratory Problems
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Combination Bronchodilator and Anti-inflammatory Drugs
    • Mucolytics
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 19 Drugs for Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, and Constipation
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Did You Know?
    • Nausea and Vomiting
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 19-1 The GI system.
    • FIGURE 19-2 Fluid is absorbed from the stool by the large bowel as it moves through the colon.
    • FIGURE 19-3 Peristalsis; mass movements in the colon.
    • FIGURE 19-4 The vomiting center.
    • Table 19-1 Causes of Nausea and Vomiting
    •  Did You Know?
    • Types of Drugs for Nausea and Vomiting
    • Antiemetic Drugs
    • How Antiemetic Drugs Work
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Dosages for Common Antiemetic Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Antivert with Axert
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects of Antiemetic Drugs
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antiemetic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do Before Giving Antiemetic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Monitoring Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Antiemetic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Antiemetic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Antiemetic Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Constipation
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 19-5 How constipation occurs.
    • Box 19-1
    • Common Causes of Constipation
    • Table 19-2 Drug Categories That Cause Constipation
    • Types of Drugs for Constipation
    • Laxatives, Lubricants, and Stool Softeners
    • How Drugs for Constipation Work
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Dosages for Common Drugs for Constipation
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Colace with Cozaar
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • MiraLax with Mirapex
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects of Drugs for Constipation
    • Common Side Effects
    • Drugs for Constipation
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Drugs for Constipation
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Drugs for Constipation
    • What To Teach Patients About Drugs for Constipation
    •  Did You Know?
    • Life Span Considerations for Drugs for Constipation
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Diarrhea
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Drugs for Diarrhea
    • Antimotility, Adsorbent/Absorbent, and Antisecretory Drugs
    • How Antidiarrheal Drugs Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 19-6 Pathophysiology of diarrhea.
    • Box 19-2
    • Common Causes of Diarrhea
    • Box 19-3
    • Drugs That Can Cause Diarrhea
    • Antibiotics
    • Antihypertensive Drugs
    • Cardiac Drugs
    • Cholinergics
    • Gastrointestinal Drugs
    • Hypolipidemic Drugs
    • Neuropsychiatric Drugs
    • Miscellaneous
    • Table 19-3 Classifications of Diarrhea
    • Dosages for Common Antidiarrheal Drugs
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects of Antidiarrheal Drugs
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antidiarrheal Drugs
    • FIGURE 19-7 Toxic megacolon. A, Note the enlarged intestines. B, Side view.
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Antidiarrheal Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Antidiarrheal Drugs
    • What To Teach Patients About Antidiarrheal Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Antidiarrheal Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 20 Drugs for Gastric Ulcers and Reflux
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Did You Know?
    • Gastrointestinal Ulcers
    • FIGURE 20-1 Locations of gastric, duodenal, and esophageal ulcers.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 20-2 Gastric ulcer pathophysiology: The mucosa breaks down and an open sore develops.
    • Box 20-1
    • Factors in the Development of Peptic Ulcers
    • FIGURE 20-3 A peptic ulcer may lead to bleeding, perforation, or other emergencies.
    • Box 20-2
    • Signs That Indicate an Ulcer Is Getting Worse
    •  Did You Know?
    • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
    • FIGURE 20-4 Acid reflux in the lower esophageal sphincter.
    • Box 20-3
    • Risk Factors for GERD
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 20-5 How to elevate the head of the bed.
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Did You Know?
    • Box 20-4
    • Stages of Treatment for GERD
    • Table 20-1 Lifestyle Changes for Treatment of GERD
    • General Issues for Drugs for PUD and GERD
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Types of Drugs for PUD and GERD
    • Histamine H2 Blockers
    • How Histamine H2 Blockers Work
    • Dosages for Common Histamine H2 Blockers
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Zantac with Zyrtec
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Common Side Effects
    • Histamine H2 Blockers
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Histamine H2 Blockers
    • What To Do After Giving Histamine H2 Blockers
    • What To Teach Patients About Histamine H2 Blockers
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Histamine H2 Blockers
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • How Proton Pump Inhibitors Work
    • Dosages for Common Proton Pump Inhibitors
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • rabeprazole with aripiprazole
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Prilosec with Prinivil
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Proton Pump Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Proton Pump Inhibitors
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Teach Patients About Proton Pump Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Antacids
    • How Antacids Work
    • Dosages for Common Antacids
    • Intended Responses
    • Table 20-2 Common Side Effects of Antacids
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antacids
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Antacids
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Interaction Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Antacids
    • What To Teach Patients About Antacids
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Antacids
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Cytoprotective Drugs
    • How Cytoprotective Drugs Work
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages for Common Cytoprotective Drugs
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Cytoprotective Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Cytoprotective Drugs
    • What To Do After Giving Cytoprotective Drugs
    • What To Teach Patients About Cytoprotective Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Cytoprotective Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Promotility Drugs
    • How Promotility Drugs Work
    • Dosages for Common Promotility Drugs
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Metoclopramide
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Metoclopramide
    • What To Do After Giving Metoclopramide
    • Box 20-5
    • Patient and Family Education for Injury Prevention with Orthostatic Hypotension
    • What To Teach Patients About Metoclopramide
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Metoclopramide
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Other Drugs used to Treat Ulcers
    • Antibiotics for H. pylori Infection
    • Dosages for Common Antibiotics for H. pylori Infections
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • metronidazole with metformin
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 21 Drugs for Seizures
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    •  Did You Know?
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Causes of Seizures
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Monitoring Alert
    • Types of Seizures
    • FIGURE 21-1 The cause of seizures.
    • Figure 21-2 Brain activity during a seizure.
    • Table 21-1 Common Causes of Seizures
    • Box 21-1
    • Risk Factors for Seizures
    • Box 21-2
    • Common Seizure-Causing Drugs
    • Figure 21-3 Typical seizure. During status epilepticus the patient experiences a state of continuous seizure.
    • Box 21-3
    • Risk Factors for Worsening of Seizures with a Well-Controlled Seizure Disorder
    • Table 21-2 Types of Generalized Seizures
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Generalized Seizures
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Partial Seizures
    • Figure 21-4 What to do if you witness a generalized or complex partial seizure.
    • Table 21-3 Types of Partial Seizures
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Treatment of Seizures
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Did You Know?
    • Types of Anti-Seizure Drugs
    •  Did You Know?
    • First-Line Drugs for Partial and Generalized Seizures
    • How Drugs for Partial and Generalized Seizures Work
    • Dosages for Common First-Line Drugs for Partial and Generalized Seizures
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Tegretol with Tegretol XR or Tequin
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • First-Line Drugs for Generalized and Partial Seizures
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving First-Line Drugs for Partial and Generalized Seizures
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving First-Line Drugs for Partial and Generalized Seizures
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Teach Patients About First-Line Drugs for Partial and Generalized Seizures
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for First-Line Drugs for Partial and Generalized Seizures
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Monitoring Alert
    • First-Line Drugs for Absence Seizures
    • How Drugs for Absence Seizures Work
    • Dosages for Common First-Line Drugs for Absence Seizures
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • First-Line Drugs for Absence Seizures
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving First-Line Drugs for Absence Seizures
    • What To Do After Giving First-Line Drugs for Absence Seizures
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About First-Line Drugs for Absence Seizures
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for First-Line Drugs for Absence Seizures
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Second-Line (Alternative) Drugs for Seizures
    • How Second-Line Drugs for Seizures Work
    • Dosages for Common Second-Line Drugs for Seizures
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Neurontin with Noroxin
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Lamictal with Lamisil
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • lamotrigine with lamivudine
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects of Second-Line Drugs for Seizures
    • Common Side Effects
    • Second-Line Drugs for Seizures
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Second-Line Drugs for Seizures
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Second-Line Drugs for Seizures
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Teach Patients About Second-Line Drugs for Seizures
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Second-Line Drugs for Seizures
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 22 Drugs for Depression, Anxiety, and Psychosis
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    •  Did You Know?
    • Depression
    •  Did You Know?
    • FIGURE 22-1 Examples of depression.
    • Box 22-1
    • Symptoms of Depression
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 22-2 The cycle of depression.
    • Box 22-2
    • Symptoms of Mania
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Table 22-1 Factors Associated with Depression
    • FIGURE 22-3 Neurotransmitters carry signals across the synapse from a neuron to receptors on the next neuron.
    • Types of Drugs for Depression
    • Antidepressants
    • How Antidepressants Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 22-4 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs increase the amount of serotonin in the brain by blocking reuptake of neurotransmitters by neurons.
    • Dosages for Common Antidepressant Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Lexapro with Loxitane
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Celexa with Zyprexa or Celebrex
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • sertraline with Soriatane
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • buPROPion with busPIRone
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Wellbutrin SR with Wellbutrin XL
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • trazodone with tramadol
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antidepressants
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Antidepressants
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Antidepressants
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Teach Patients About Antidepressants
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Life Span Considerations for Antidepressants
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Anxiety
    • Box 22-3
    • Symptoms of Anxiety
    • Panic Disorder
    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • Phobic Disorder
    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Stress Disorders (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder)
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Types of Drugs for Anxiety
    • Antianxiety Drugs
    • How Antianxiety Drugs Work
    • FIGURE 22-5 The circle of anxiety.
    • Box 22-4
    • Causes and External Factors Associated with Anxiety
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages for Common Antianxiety Drugs
    •  Did You Know?
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antianxiety Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do Before Giving Antianxiety Drugs
    • What To Do After Giving Antianxiety Drugs
    • What To Teach Patients About Antianxiety Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Box 22-5
    • Symptoms of Psychosis
    • Life Span Considerations for Antianxiety Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Psychosis
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Box 22-6
    • Potential Causes of Psychosis
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Types of Drugs for Psychosis
    • Antipsychotics
    • How Antipsychotics Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Dosages for Common Drugs for Psychosis
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • chlorproMAZINE with chlorproPAMIDE
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Clozaril with Colazal
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Zyprexa with Celexa or Zyrtec
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Antipsychotics
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Antipsychotics
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Antipsychotics
    • What To Teach Patients About Antipsychotics
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Antipsychotics
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 23 Drugs for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    • FIGURE 23-1 Cross sections of a normal brain and a brain affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Neurons die in areas of the brain important to memory and language.
    • Alzheimer’s Disease
    •  Did You Know?
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Did You Know?
    • Table 23-1 Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Cholinesterase/Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors and Memantine
    • How Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease Work
    • Dosages for Common Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Aricept with Aciphex
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Reminyl with Robinul
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What to Teach Patients About Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Parkinson’s Disease
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • FIGURE 23-2 In Parkinson’s disease, nerve cells in the substantia nigra degenerate and less dopamine is produced. This results in fewer connections between the nerve cells in the basal ganglia and in decreased smooth movements.
    • Table 23-2 Drugs That Cause Secondary Parkinson’s Disease
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Box 23-1
    • Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease
    • Dopaminergic/Dopamine Agonists, COMT Inhibitors, MAO-B Inhibitors, Anticholinergics
    • How Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Mirapex with MiraLax
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects of Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease
    • Common Side Effects
    • Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease
    • Table 23-3 Signs and Symptoms of Adverse Effects of Drugs Used to Treat Parkinson’s Disease
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Box 23-2
    • Foods to Avoid When Taking MAO Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 24 Drugs for Endocrine Problems
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • FIGURE 24-1 Location of the thyroid gland.
    • Overview
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Did You Know?
    • Table 24-1 Blood Values for Thyroid Function
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 24-2 Woman with a goiter.
    • Box 24-1
    • Signs and Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
    • Infants and Children
    • Adults
    • Types of Thyroid Hormone Replacement Drugs
    • Levothyroxine and Liothyronine
    • How Thyroid Hormone Replacement Drugs Work
    • FIGURE 24-3 Facial appearance of a woman with severe hypothyroidism.
    • FIGURE 24-4 Facial appearance of an infant with hypothyroidism before treatment (A) and after thyroid hormone replacement therapy (B).
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages for Common Thyroid Hormone Replacement Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • levothyroxine with Lanoxin
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Thyroid Hormone Replacement Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Thyroid Hormone Replacement Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Thyroid Hormone Replacement Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Thyroid Hormone Replacement Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Thyroid Hormone Replacement Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Box 24-2
    • Signs and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
    • General Symptoms
    • Additional Symptoms Specific to Graves’ Disease Only
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 24-5 Facial appearance of a woman with hyperthyroidism from Graves’ disease. Note the bulging eyes, goiter, and lack of body fat.
    • Types of Thyroid-Suppressing Drugs
    • Methimazole and Propylthiouracil
    • How Thyroid-Suppressing Drugs Work
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Dosages for Common Thyroid-Suppressing Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • methimazole with metolazone
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • propylthiouracil with Purinethol
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Thyroid-Suppressing Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Thyroid-Suppressing Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Thyroid-Suppressing Drugs
    • What To Teach Patients About Thyroid-Suppressing Drugs
    • Life Span Considerations for Thyroid-Suppressing Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Menopause
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 24-6 Hormone interactions for ovulation and menstruation. GnRH, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 24-7 Positive and negative feedback control over estrogen and progesterone secretion.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Perimenopausal Hormone Replacement Drugs
    • Conjugated Estrogens
    • How Perimenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy Works
    • FIGURE 24-8 Mechanism for hot flushes and night sweats associated with menopause. FSH, Follicle-stimulating hormone; GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
    • Box 24-3
    • Common Perimenopausal Symptoms
    • Dosages for Common Perimenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Premphase with Prempro
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Perimenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Teach Patients About Perimenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 25 Drugs for Diabetes
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    • FIGURE 25-1 Location of the pancreas.
    • FIGURE 25-2 Close-up view of the pancreas showing the islets of Langerhans that contain the glucagon-secreting alpha cells and the insulin-secreting beta cells.
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Normal Physiology
    • Table 25-1 Laboratory Indicators of Adequate Blood Glucose Control
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Insulin
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 25-3 Action of insulin.
    • Box 25-1
    • Effects of Insulin
    • FIGURE 25-4 One glycogen “tree” with 40 molecules of glucose stored in it.
    • Glucagon
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 25-5 Action of glucagon.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Pathophysiology
    • Type 1 Diabetes
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Box 25-2
    • Signs and Symptoms of Ketoacidosis
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Type 2 Diabetes
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Long-Term Complications of Diabetes
    • Box 25-3
    • Complications of Poorly Controlled Diabetes
    • Types of Drugs for Diabetes
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Insulin Therapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Insulin
    •  Did You Know?
    • FIGURE 25-6 An insulin syringe.
    • Table 25-2 Types and Durations of Insulin
    • How Insulin Therapy Works
    • Box 25-4
    • Signs and Symptoms of Hypoglycemia
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Adverse Effects
    • Insulin Regimens
    • Single Daily Injection Regimen
    • FIGURE 25-7 Examples of different insulin dosing schedules.
    • Two-Dose Injection Regimen
    • Three-Dose Injection Regimen
    • Four-Dose Injection Regimen
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Interaction Alert
    • Intensified Insulin Regimens
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do Before Injecting Insulin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Injecting Insulin
    • Box 25-5
    • Guide for Mixing Two Types of Insulin
    • 10 Units of Regular Insulin with 20 Units of NPH Insulin:
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Insulin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • FIGURE 25-8 Common insulin injection sites.
    • Box 25-6
    • Patient Education Guide for Self-Injection of Insulin
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Insulin
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • Oral Antidiabetic Drugs
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • How Oral Antidiabetic Drugs Work
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • glipiZIDE with glyBURIDE
    • Dosages for Common Oral Antidiabetic Drugs
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Amaryl with Reminyl
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Diabeta with Zebeta
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Micronase with Microzide
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Prandin with Avandia
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • metformin with metronidazole
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Precose with Precare
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Actos with Actonel
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Oral Antidiabetic Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do Before Giving Antidiabetic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • What To Do After Giving Oral Antidiabetic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Oral Antidiabetic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Oral Antidiabetic Drugs
    • Pediatric Considerations
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Dosage Alert
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Oral Combination Drugs
    • Common Oral Combination Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes
    • Drugs That Increase Incretins and Amylin
    • How Drugs That Increase Incretin and Amylin Work
    • Dosages for Common Drugs That Increase Incretins and Amylin
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Drugs That Increase Incretins and Amylin
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Teach Patients About Exenatide and Liraglutide
    • FIGURE 25-9 The Byetta injection system.
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Pramlintide
    • What To Teach Patients About Sitagliptin
    • Life Span Considerations for Drugs That Increase Incretins and Amylin
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 26 Drugs for Glaucoma
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Overview
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 26-1 Features of the external eye (front view) along with the tear gland and duct system.
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Physiology
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 26-2 Miosis and mydriasis.
    • FIGURE 26-3 Side view (cut-away) of the internal features of the eye and flow of aqueous humor.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Pathophysiology
    • Table 26-1 Types and Causes of Glaucoma
    •  Memory Jogger
    • General Issues for Local Eye Drug Therapy
    • What To Do Before Giving Eye Drugs
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • FIGURE 26-4 Correct technique for instilling eye drops.
    • FIGURE 26-5 Applying punctal occlusion to prevent systemic absorption.
    • What To Do After Giving Eye Drugs
    • What To Teach Patients About Eye Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Box 26-1
    • How to Instill Eye Drops or Ointments
    • Self-Administration
    • Administering Drugs to Another Person
    • FIGURE 26-6 The Xal-Ease adaptive device for self-administering eye drops.
    • Types of Drugs for Glaucoma
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Prostaglandin Agonists
    • How Prostaglandin Agonists Work
    • Dosages for Common Prostaglandin Agonists
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • FIGURE 26-7 Changes in iris color associated with prostaglandin agonist drug therapy for glaucoma. A, Before treatment. B, After treatment.
    • Common Side Effects
    • Prostaglandin Agonists
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Prostaglandin Agonists
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Prostaglandin Agonists
    • What To Teach Patients About Prostaglandin Agonists
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Prostaglandin Antagonists
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
    • Dosages for Common Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Drugs
    • How Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents Work
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
    • Adverse Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • What To Do Before Giving Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
    • What To Do After Giving Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
    • Life Span Considerations for Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert!
    • Adrenergic Agonists
    • How Adrenergic Agonists Work
    • Dosages for Common Adrenergic Agonists
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Adrenergic Agonists
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Adrenergic Agonists
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Interaction Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Adrenergic Agonists
    • What To Teach Patients About Adrenergic Agonists
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Life Span Considerations for Adrenergic Agonists
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Cholinergic Drugs
    • How Cholinergic Drugs Work
    •  Did You Know?
    • Dosages for Common Cholinergic Drugs
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Cholinergic Drugs
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Cholinergic Drugs
    • What To Do After Giving Cholinergic Drugs
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Cholinergic Drugs
    • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    • How Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Work
    • Dosages for Common Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • acetaZOLAMIDE with acetoHEXAMIDE
    •  Do Not Confuse
    • Diamox with Diabinese
    • Intended Responses
    • Side Effects
    • Common Side Effects
    • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    • Adverse Effects
    • What To Do Before Giving Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    • What To Teach Patients About Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    • Life Span Considerations for Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities
    • chapter 27 Drugs for Cancer Therapy
    • Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Review of Related Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • FIGURE 27-1 Tissue growth by hypertrophy and hyperplasia.
    •  Did You Know?
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Features of Normal Cells
    • FIGURE 27-2 Example of the specific shapes of normal cell types.
    •  Memory Jogger
    • FIGURE 27-3 Activities inside the cell during different phases of the cell cycle. The yellow circle is the nucleus.
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Features of Cancer Cells
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Table 27-1 Features of Normal and Abnormal Cells
    • Box 27-1
    • Examples of Known Chemical and Physical Carcinogens
    • Cancer Development
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Table 27-2 Usual Sites of Metastasis for Common Cancers
    • Cancer Classification
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Cancer Causes
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Types of Cancer Treatment
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Chemotherapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Chemotherapy Drug Categories
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Table 27-3 Chemotherapy Drug Categories
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Combination Chemotherapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Treatment Issues
    •  Memory Jogger
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do Before Giving Chemotherapy
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Administration Alert
    • What To Do During Chemotherapy
    • Box 27-2
    • Documentation of Extravasation
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Do After Giving Chemotherapy
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • What To Teach Patients About Chemotherapy
    • Box 27-3
    • Patient Teaching Tips for Prevention of Infection During Neutropenia
    • Neutropenia
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Box 27-4
    • Patient Teaching Tips for Preventing Injury or Bleeding During Thrombocytopenia
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Action/Intervention Alert
    • Anemia
    • Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting
    • Box 27-5
    • Patient Teaching Tips for Managing Mucositis
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Mucositis
    • Alopecia
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Changes in Cognitive Function
    • Life Span Considerations for Chemotherapy
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Considerations for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    •  Drug Alert!
    • Teaching Alert
    • Considerations for Older Adults
    • Hormone Manipulation
    • FIGURE 27-4 Action of hormones and anti-hormones on hormone-sensitive cancer cells.
    • Table 27-4 Drugs Used for Hormone Manipulation of Cancer
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Side Effects
    • Immunotherapy: Biological Response Modifiers
    • BRMs as Cancer Therapy
    • BRMs as Supportive Therapy
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Side Effects
    •  Clinical Pitfall
    • Targeted Therapy
    • FIGURE 27-5 Possible cancer cell targets for targeted therapy. The red circles indicate areas for activity of targeted therapies.
    • Table 27-5 Common Agents Used for Targeted Therapy
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Side Effects
    •  Memory Jogger
    • Get Ready for Practice!
    • Key Points
    • Additional Learning Resources
    • Review Questions
    • Critical Thinking Activities

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