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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 16th Edition

By: Gerard J. Tortora Bryan H. Derrickson
ISBN-10: 1119662796
/ ISBN-13: 9781119662686
Edition: 16th Edition
Language: English
				
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CHAPTER 1: An Introduction to the Human Body

    • The Human Body and Homeostasis
    • 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined
    • 1.2 Levels of Structural Organization and Body Systems
    • 1.3 Characteristics of the Living Human Organism
    • 1.4 Homeostasis
    • 1.5 Basic Anatomical Terminology
    • 1.6 Aging and Homeostasis
    • 1.7 Medical Imaging
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 2: The Chemical Level of Organization

    • Chemistry and Homeostasis
    • 2.1 How Matter Is Organized
    • 2.2 Chemical Bonds
    • 2.3 Chemical Reactions
    • 2.4 Inorganic Compounds and Solutions
    • 2.5 Overview of Organic Compounds
    • 2.6 Carbohydrates
    • 2.7 Lipids
    • 2.8 Proteins
    • 2.9 Nucleic Acids
    • 2.10 Adenosine Triphosphate
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 3: The Cellular Level of Organization

    • Cells and Homeostasis
    • 3.1 Parts of a Cell
    • 3.2 The Plasma Membrane
    • 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane
    • 3.4 Cytoplasm
    • 3.5 Nucleus
    • 3.6 Protein Synthesis
    • 3.7 Cell Division
    • 3.8 Cellular Diversity
    • 3.9 Aging and Cells
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 4: The Tissue Level of Organization

    • Tissues and Homeostasis
    • 4.1 Types of Tissues
    • 4.2 Cell Junctions
    • 4.3 Comparison Between Epithelial and Connective Tissues
    • 4.4 Epithelial Tissue
    • 4.5 Connective Tissue
    • 4.6 Membranes
    • 4.7 Muscular Tissue
    • 4.8 Nervous Tissue
    • 4.9 Excitable Cells
    • 4.10 Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis
    • 4.11 Aging and Tissues
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 5: The Integumentary System

    • The Integumentary System and Homeostasis
    • 5.1 Structure of the Skin
    • 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
    • 5.3 Types of Skin
    • 5.4 Functions of the Skin
    • 5.5 Maintaining Homeostasis: Skin Wound Healing
    • 5.6 Development of the Integumentary System
    • 5.7 Aging and the Integumentary System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue

    • Bone Tissue and Homeostasis
    • 6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System
    • 6.2 Structure of Bone
    • 6.3 Histology of Bone Tissue
    • 6.4 Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone
    • 6.5 Bone Formation
    • 6.6 Fracture and Repair of Bone
    • 6.7 Bone’s Role in Calcium Homeostasis
    • 6.8 Exercise and Bone Tissue
    • 6.9 Aging and Bone Tissue
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 7: The Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton

    • The Axial Skeleton and Homeostasis
    • 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
    • 7.2 Types of Bones
    • 7.3 Bone Surface Markings
    • 7.4 Skull: An Overview
    • 7.5 Cranial Cavity Bones
    • 7.6 Facial Bones
    • 7.7 Special Features of the Skull
    • 7.8 Hyoid Bone
    • 7.9 Vertebral Column
    • 7.10 Vertebral Regions
    • 7.11 Thorax
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 8: The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton

    • The Appendicular Skeleton and Homeostasis
    • 8.1 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
    • 8.2 Upper Limb (Extremity)
    • 8.3 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
    • 8.4 Greater and Lesser Pelves
    • 8.5 Comparison of Female and Male Pelves
    • 8.6 Lower Limb (Extremity)
    • 8.7 Development of the Skeletal System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 9: Joints

    • Joints and Homeostasis
    • 9.1 Joint Classification
    • 9.2 Fibrous Joints
    • 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
    • 9.4 Synovial Joints
    • 9.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints
    • 9.6 Types of Synovial Joints
    • 9.7 Factors Affecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints
    • 9.8 Selected Joints of the Body
    • 9.9 Temporomandibular Joint
    • 9.10 Glenohumeral (Shoulder) Joint
    • 9.11 Elbow Joint
    • 9.12 Hip Joint
    • 9.13 Knee Joint
    • 9.14 Aging and Joints
    • 9.15 Arthroplasty
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 10: Muscular Tissue

    • Muscular Tissue and Homeostasis
    • 10.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue
    • 10.2 Structure of Skeletal Muscle Tissue
    • 10.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
    • 10.4 Muscle Metabolism
    • 10.5 Control of Muscle Tension
    • 10.6 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
    • 10.7 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue
    • 10.8 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
    • 10.9 Smooth Muscle Tissue
    • 10.10 Regeneration of Muscular Tissue
    • 10.11 Development of Muscle
    • 10.12 Aging and Muscular Tissue
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 11: The Muscular System

    • The Muscular System and Homeostasis
    • 11.1 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements
    • 11.2 How Skeletal Muscles Are Named
    • 11.3 Overview of the Principal Skeletal Muscles
    • 11.4 Muscles of the Head That Produce Facial Expressions
    • 11.5 Muscles of the Head That Move the Eyeballs and Upper Eyelids
    • 11.6 Muscles That Move the Mandible and Assist in Mastication and Speech
    • 11.7 Muscles of the Head That Move the Tongue and Assist in Mastication and Speech
    • 11.8 Muscles of the Anterior Neck That Assist in Deglutition and Speech
    • 11.9 Muscles of the Neck That Move the Head
    • 11.10 Muscles of the Abdomen That Protect Abdominal Viscera and Move the Vertebral Column
    • 11.11 Muscles of the Thorax That Assist in Breathing
    • 11.12 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor That Support the Pelvic Viscera and Function as Sphincters
    • 11.13 Muscles of the Perineum
    • 11.14 Muscles of the Thorax That Move the Pectoral Girdle
    • 11.15 Muscles of the Thorax and Shoulder That Move the Humerus
    • 11.16 Muscles of the Arm That Move the Radius and Ulna
    • 11.17 Muscles of the Forearm That Move the Wrist, Hand, Thumb, and Digits
    • 11.18 Muscles of the Palm That Move the Digits—Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
    • 11.19 Muscles of the Neck and Back That Move the Vertebral Column
    • 11.20 Muscles of the Gluteal Region That Move the Femur
    • 11.21 Muscles of the Thigh That Move the Femur, Tibia, and Fibula
    • 11.22 Muscles of the Leg That Move the Foot and Toes
    • 11.23 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot That Move the Toes
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 12: Nervous Tissue

    • 12.1 Overview of the Nervous System
    • 12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue
    • 12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons: An Overview
    • 12.4 Resting Membrane Potential
    • 12.5 Graded Potentials
    • 12.6 Action Potentials
    • 12.7 Signal Transmission at Synapses
    • 12.8 Neurotransmitters
    • 12.9 Neural Circuits
    • 12.10 Regeneration and Repair of Nervous Tissue
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 13: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

    • The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves and Homeostasis
    • 13.1 Spinal Cord Anatomy
    • 13.2 Spinal Nerves
    • 13.3 Cervical Plexus
    • 13.4 Brachial Plexus
    • 13.5 Lumbar Plexus
    • 13.6 Sacral and Coccygeal Plexuses
    • 13.7 Spinal Cord Physiology
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves

    • The Brain, Cranial Nerves, and Homeostasis
    • 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply
    • 14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • 14.3 The Brainstem and Reticular Formation
    • 14.4 The Cerebellum
    • 14.5 The Diencephalon
    • 14.6 The Cerebrum
    • 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
    • 14.8 Cranial Nerves: An Overview
    • 14.9 Olfactory (I) Nerve
    • 14.10 Optic (II) Nerve
    • 14.11 Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves
    • 14.12 Trigeminal (V) Nerve
    • 14.13 Facial (VII) Nerve
    • 14.14 Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve
    • 14.15 Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve
    • 14.16 Vagus (X) Nerve
    • 14.17 Accessory (XI) Nerve
    • 14.18 Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve
    • 14.19 Development of the Nervous System
    • 14.20 Aging and the Nervous System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 15: The Autonomic Nervous System

    • The Autonomic Nervous System and Homeostasis
    • 15.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
    • 15.2 Anatomy of Autonomic Motor Pathways
    • 15.3 ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors
    • 15.4 Physiology of the ANS
    • 15.5 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems

    • Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems and Homeostasis
    • 16.1 Sensation
    • 16.2 Somatic Sensations
    • 16.3 Somatic Sensory Pathways
    • 16.4 Control of Body Movement
    • 16.5 Integrative Functions of the Cerebrum
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 17: The Special Senses

    • The Special Senses and Homeostasis
    • 17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell
    • 17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste
    • 17.3 Vision: An Overview
    • 17.4 Accessory Structures of the Eye
    • 17.5 Anatomy of the Eyeball
    • 17.6 Physiology of Vision
    • 17.7 Hearing
    • 17.8 Equilibrium
    • 17.9 Development of the Eyes and Ears
    • 17.10 Aging and the Special Senses
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 18: The Endocrine System

    • The Endocrine System and Homeostasis
    • 18.1 Comparison of Control by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
    • 18.2 Endocrine Glands
    • 18.3 Hormone Activity
    • 18.4 Mechanisms of Hormone Action
    • 18.5 Control of Hormone Secretion
    • 18.6 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
    • 18.7 Thyroid Gland
    • 18.8 Parathyroid Glands
    • 18.9 Suprarenal (Adrenal) Glands
    • 18.10 Pancreatic Islets
    • 18.11 Ovaries and Testes
    • 18.12 Pineal Gland and Thymus
    • 18.13 Other Endocrine Tissues and Organs, Eicosanoids, and Growth Factors
    • 18.14 The Stress Response
    • 18.15 Development of the Endocrine System
    • 18.16 Aging and the Endocrine System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 19: The Cardiovascular System: The Blood

    • Blood and Homeostasis
    • 19.1 Functions and Properties of Blood
    • 19.2 Formation of Blood Cells
    • 19.3 Red Blood Cells
    • 19.4 White Blood Cells
    • 19.5 Platelets
    • 19.6 Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow and Cord Blood
    • 19.7 Hemostasis
    • 19.8 Blood Groups and Blood Types
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

    • The Heart and Homeostasis
    • 20.1 Anatomy of the Heart
    • 20.2 Heart Valves and Circulation of Blood
    • 20.3 Cardiac Muscle Tissue and the Cardiac Conduction System
    • 20.4 The Cardiac Cycle
    • 20.5 Cardiac Output
    • 20.6 Exercise and the Heart
    • 20.7 Help for Failing Hearts
    • 20.8 Development of the Heart
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics

    • Blood Vessels, Hemodynamics, and Homeostasis
    • 21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
    • 21.2 Capillary Exchange
    • 21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Affecting Blood Flow
    • 21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
    • 21.5 Checking Circulation
    • 21.6 Shock and Homeostasis
    • 21.7 Circulatory Routes: Systemic Circulation
    • 21.8 The Aorta and Its Branches
    • 21.9 Ascending Aorta
    • 21.10 The Aortic Arch
    • 21.11 Thoracic Aorta
    • 21.12 Abdominal Aorta
    • 21.13 Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
    • 21.14 Veins of the Systemic Circulation
    • 21.15 Veins of the Head and Neck
    • 21.16 Veins of the Upper Limbs
    • 21.17 Veins of the Thorax
    • 21.18 Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis
    • 21.19 Veins of the Lower Limbs
    • 21.20 Circulatory Routes: The Hepatic Portal Circulation
    • 21.21 Circulatory Routes: The Pulmonary Circulation
    • 21.22 Circulatory Routes: The Fetal Circulation
    • 21.23 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood
    • 21.24 Aging and the Cardiovascular System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 22: The Lymphoid (Lymphatic) System and Immunity

    • The Lymphoid System, Disease Resistance, and Homeostasis
    • 22.1 The Concept of Immunity
    • 22.2 Overview of the Lymphoid System
    • 22.3 Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph Circulation
    • 22.4 Lymphoid Organs and Tissues
    • 22.5 Development of Lymphoid Tissues
    • 22.6 Innate Immunity
    • 22.7 Adaptive Immunity
    • 22.8 Cell-Mediated Immunity
    • 22.9 Antibody-Mediated Immunity
    • 22.10 Self-Recognition and Self-Tolerance
    • 22.11 Stress and Immunity
    • 22.12 Aging and the Lymphoid System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 23: The Respiratory System

    • 23.1 Overview of the Respiratory System
    • 23.2 The Upper Respiratory System
    • 23.3 The Lower Respiratory System
    • 23.4 Pulmonary Ventilation
    • 23.5 Lung Volumes and Capacities
    • 23.6 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
    • 23.7 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
    • 23.8 Control of Breathing
    • 23.9 Exercise and the Respiratory System
    • 23.10 Development of the Respiratory System
    • 23.11 Aging and the Respiratory System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 24: The Digestive System

    • 24.1 Overview of the Digestive System
    • 24.2 Layers of the Digestive Canal
    • 24.3 Neural Innervation of the Digestive Canal
    • 24.4 Peritoneum
    • 24.5 Mouth
    • 24.6 Pharynx
    • 24.7 Esophagus
    • 24.8 Deglutition
    • 24.9 Stomach
    • 24.10 Pancreas
    • 24.11 Liver and Gallbladder
    • 24.12 Small Intestine
    • 24.13 Large Intestine
    • 24.14 Phases of Digestion
    • 24.15 Development of the Digestive System
    • 24.16 Aging and the Digestive System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 25: Metabolism and Nutrition

    • Metabolism, Nutrition, and Homeostasis
    • 25.1 Metabolic Reactions
    • 25.2 Energy Transfer
    • 25.3 Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • 25.4 Lipid Metabolism
    • 25.5 Protein Metabolism
    • 25.6 Key Molecules at Metabolic Crossroads
    • 25.7 Metabolic Adaptations
    • 25.8 Energy Balance
    • 25.9 Regulation of Body Temperature
    • 25.10 Nutrition
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 26: The Urinary System

    • 26.1 Overview of the Urinary System
    • 26.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys
    • 26.3 The Nephron
    • 26.4 Overview of Renal Physiology
    • 26.5 Glomerular Filtration
    • 26.6 Tubular Reabsorption and Tubular Secretion
    • 26.7 Production of Dilute and Concentrated Urine
    • 26.8 Evaluation of Kidney Function
    • 26.9 Urine Transportation, Storage, and Elimination
    • 26.10 Waste Management in Other Body Systems
    • 26.11 Development of the Urinary System
    • 26.12 Aging and the Urinary System
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Focus on Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 27: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis

    • Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis
    • 27.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Homeostasis
    • 27.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids
    • 27.3 Acid–Base Balance
    • 27.4 Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 28: The Genital (Reproductive) Systems

    • The Genital Systems and Homeostasis
    • 28.1 Male Genital (Reproductive) System
    • 28.2 Female Genital (Reproductive) System
    • 28.3 The Female Reproductive Cycle
    • 28.4 The Human Sexual Response
    • 28.5 Birth Control Methods and Abortion
    • 28.6 Development of the Genital Systems
    • 28.7 Aging and the Genital Systems
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

CHAPTER 29: Development and Inheritance

    • Development, Inheritance, and Homeostasis
    • 29.1 Overview of Development
    • 29.2 The First Two Weeks of the Embryonic Period
    • 29.3 The Remaining Weeks of the Embryonic Period
    • 29.4 Fetal Period
    • 29.5 Teratogens
    • 29.6 Prenatal Diagnostic Tests
    • 29.7 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy
    • 29.8 Exercise and Pregnancy
    • 29.9 Labor
    • 29.10 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth
    • 29.11 The Physiology of Lactation
    • 29.12 Inheritance
    • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
    • Chapter Review
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions

Appendix A: Measurements

Appendix B: Periodic Table

Appendix C: Normal Values for Selected Blood Tests

Appendix D: Normal Values for Selected Urine Tests

Appendix E: Answers to Critical Thinking Questions

Appendix F: Medical Eponyms

Glossary

Index

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