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Plants and Society

Plants and Society 8th Edition

By: Estelle Levetin
ISBN-10: 1259880044
/ ISBN-13: 9781260163513
Edition: 8th Edition
Language: English
				
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Unit I Plants and Society: The Botanical Connections to Our Lives

    • 1 Plants in Our Lives
    • Plants and Human Society
    • The Flowering Plants
    • The Non-Flowering Plants
    • The Algae
    • The Fungi
    • Plant Sciences
    • Scientific Method
    • A Closer Look 1.1 Biological Mimics
    • Fundamental Properties of Life
    • Molecules of Life
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
    • A Closer Look 1.2 Perfumes to Poisons: Plants as Chemical Factories

Unit II Introduction to Plant Life: Botanical Principles

    • 2 The Plant Cell
    • Early Studies of Cells
    • The Cell Wall
    • The Protoplast
    • Membranes
    • Moving Into and Out of Cells
    • Organelles
    • A Closer Look 2.1 Origin of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
    • The Nucleus
    • Cell Division
    • The Cell Cycle
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
    • 3 The Plant Body
    • Plant Tissues
    • Meristems
    • Dermal Tissue
    • Ground Tissue
    • Vascular Tissue
    • Plant Organs
    • Stems
    • Roots
    • Leaves
    • A Closer Look 3.1 Studying Ancient Tree Rings
    • Vegetables: Edible Plant Organs
    • Carrots
    • A Closer Look 3.2 Plants That Trap Animals
    • Lettuce
    • Radishes
    • A Closer Look 3.3 Supermarket Botany
    • Asparagus
    • 4 Plant Physiology
    • Plant Transport Systems
    • Transpiration
    • Absorption of Water from the Soil
    • A Closer Look 4.1 Mineral Nutrition and the Green Clean
    • Water Movement in Plants
    • Translocation of Sugar
    • A Closer Look 4.2 Sugar and Slavery
    • Metabolism
    • Energy
    • Redox Reactions
    • Phosphorylation
    • Enzymes
    • Photosynthesis
    • Energy from the Sun
    • Chloroplasts and Light-Absorbing Pigments
    • Overview
    • The Light Reactions
    • The Calvin Cycle
    • Variation to Carbon Fixation
    • Cellular Respiration
    • Glycolysis
    • The Krebs Cycle
    • The Electron Transport System
    • Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration
    • 5 Plant Life Cycle: Flowers
    • The Flower
    • Floral Organs
    • A Closer Look 5.1 Mad about Tulips
    • Modified Flowers
    • Meiosis
    • Stages of Meiosis
    • Meiosis in Flowering Plants
    • Male Gametophyte Development
    • A Closer Look 5.2 Pollen Is More Than Something to Sneeze At
    • Female Gametophyte Development
    • Pollination and Fertilization
    • Animal Pollination
    • A Closer Look 5.3 Alluring Scents
    • Wind Pollination
    • Double Fertilization
    • 6 Plant Life Cycle: Fruits and Seeds
    • Fruit Types
    • Simple Fleshy Fruits
    • Dry Dehiscent Fruits
    • Dry Indehiscent Fruits
    • Aggregate and Multiple Fruits
    • Seed Structure and Germination
    • Dicot Seeds
    • Monocot Seeds
    • Seed Germination and Development
    • Representative Edible Fruits
    • Tomatoes
    • A Closer Look 6.1 The Influence of Hormones on Plant Reproductive Cycles
    • Apples
    • Oranges and Grapefruits
    • Chestnuts
    • Exotic Fruits
    • 7 Genetics
    • Mendelian Genetics
    • Gregor Mendel and the Garden Pea
    • Monohybrid Cross
    • Dihybrid Cross
    • Beyond Mendelian Genetics
    • Incomplete Dominance
    • A Closer Look 7.1 Solving Genetics Problems
    • Multiple Alleles
    • Polygenic Inheritance
    • Linkage
    • Molecular Genetics
    • DNA—The Genetic Material
    • A Closer Look 7.2 Try These Genes On for Size
    • Genes Control Proteins
    • Transcription and the Genetic Code
    • Translation
    • Other Roles of RNA
    • Mutations
    • Epigenetics
    • Recombinant DNA
    • 8 Plant Systematics and Evolution
    • Early History of Classification
    • Carolus Linnaeus
    • How Plants Are Named
    • Common Names
    • A Closer Look 8.1 The Language of Flowers
    • Scientific Names
    • Taxonomic Hierarchy
    • Higher Taxa
    • What Is a Species?
    • Phylocode
    • A Closer Look 8.2 Saving Species through Systematics
    • Barcoding Species
    • The Influence of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
    • The Voyage of the HMS Beagle
    • Natural Selection
    • 9 Diversity of Plant Life
    • The Three-Domain System
    • Survey of the Plant Kingdom
    • A Closer Look 9.1 Alternation of Generations
    • Liverworts, Mosses, and Hornworts
    • Lycophytes and Ferns
    • Gymnosperms
    • A Closer Look 9.2 Amber: A Glimpse into the Past
    • Angiosperms

Unit III Plants as a Source of Food

    • 10 Human Nutrition
    • Macronutrients
    • Sugars and Complex Carbohydrates
    • A Closer Look 10.1 Famine or Feast
    • Fiber in the Diet
    • Proteins and Essential Amino Acids
    • Gluten and Celiac Disease
    • Fats and Cholesterol
    • Micronutrients
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Dietary Guidelines
    • Balancing Nutritional Requirements
    • Healthier Dietary Guidelines
    • Glycemic Index
    • Meatless Alternatives
    • A Closer Look 10.2 Eat Broccoli for Cancer Prevention
    • 11 Origins of Agriculture
    • Foraging Societies and Their Diets
    • Early Foragers
    • Modern Foragers
    • The Paleo Diet
    • A Closer Look 11.1 Forensic Botany
    • Agriculture: Revolution or Evolution?
    • Latitudinal Spread
    • Early Sites of Agriculture
    • The Near East
    • The Far East
    • The New World
    • Characteristics of Domesticated Plants
    • Centers of Plant Domestication
    • 12 The Grasses
    • Characteristics of the Grass Family
    • Vegetative Characteristics
    • The Flower
    • The Grain
    • Wheat: The Staff of Life
    • Origin and Evolution of Wheat
    • Modern Cultivars
    • Wheat Genome
    • A Closer Look 12.1 The Rise of Bread
    • Nutrition
    • Corn: Indian Maize
    • An Unusual Cereal
    • Types of Corn
    • A Closer Look 12.2 Barbara McClintock and Jumping Genes in Corn
    • Hybrid Corn
    • Ancestry of Corn
    • Corn Genome
    • Value of Corn
    • Rice: Food for Billions
    • A Plant for Flooded Fields
    • Varieties
    • Rice Genome
    • Flood-Tolerant Rice
    • Other Important Grains
    • Rye and Triticale
    • Oats
    • Barley and Tritordeum
    • Sorghum and Millets
    • Other Grasses
    • Forage Grasses
    • Lawn Grasses
    • Bioethanol: Grass to Gas
    • Corn
    • Sugarcane
    • Cellulosic Ethanol
    • 13 Legumes
    • Characteristics of the Legume Family
    • A Closer Look 13.1 The Nitrogen Cycle
    • Important Legume Food Crops
    • Beans and Peas
    • Peanuts
    • Soybeans
    • A Closer Look 13.2 Harvesting Oil
    • Other Legumes of Interest
    • A Supertree for Forestry
    • Forage Crops
    • Beans of the Future
    • 14 Starchy Staples
    • Storage Organs
    • Modified Stems
    • Storage Roots
    • A Closer Look 14.1 Banana Republics: The Story of the Starchy Fruit
    • White Potato
    • South American Origins
    • The Irish Famine
    • Continental Europe
    • The Potato in the United States
    • Solanum tuberosum
    • Pathogens and Pests
    • Potato Genome
    • Modern Cultivars
    • Sweet Potato
    • Origin and Spread
    • Cultivation
    • Cassava
    • Origin and Spread
    • Botany and Cultivation
    • Processing
    • A Closer Look 14.2 Starch: In Our Collars and in Our Colas
    • Other Underground Crops
    • Yams
    • Taro
    • Jerusalem Artichoke
    • 15 Feeding a Hungry World
    • Breeding for Crop Improvement
    • The Green Revolution
    • High-Yield Varieties
    • Disease-Resistant Varieties
    • History of the Green Revolution
    • Problems with the Green Revolution: What Went Wrong?
    • Solutions?
    • Genetic Diversity
    • Monoculture
    • Sustainable Agriculture
    • Genetic Erosion
    • Seed Banks
    • Heirloom Varieties
    • Germplasm Treaty
    • Crops and Global Warming
    • Alternative Crops: The Search for New Foods
    • Quinoa
    • Amaranth and Chia
    • Tarwi
    • Tamarillo and Naranjilla
    • Oca
    • Biotechnology
    • A Closer Look 15.1 Mutiny on the HMS Bounty: The Story of Breadfruit
    • Cell and Tissue Culture
    • Molecular Plant Breeding
    • Genetic Engineering and Transgenic Plants
    • Herbicide Resistance
    • Against the Grain
    • Insect Resistance
    • Bt Corn and Controversy
    • The Promise of Golden Rice
    • Other Genetically Engineered Foods
    • Disease Resistance
    • Farming Pharmaceuticals
    • Nonfood Crops
    • Genetically Modified Trees
    • Regulatory Issues
    • Environmental and Safety Considerations
    • Gene Editing: Crispr/Cas9

Unit IV Commercial Products Derived from Plants

    • 16 Stimulating Beverages
    • Physiological Effects of Caffeine
    • Medical Benefits of Caffeine
    • Coffee
    • An Arabian Drink
    • Plantations, Cultivation, and Processing
    • A Closer Look 16.1 Climate Change and the Future of Coffee
    • From Bean to Brew
    • Varieties
    • Decaffeination
    • Variations on a Bean
    • Shade Coffee vs. Sun Coffee
    • Fair Trade Coffee
    • Tea
    • Oriental Origins
    • Cultivation and Processing
    • A Closer Look 16.2 Tea Time: Ceremonies and Customs around the World
    • The Flavor and Health Effects of Tea
    • History
    • Chocolate
    • Food of the Gods
    • Quakers and Cocoa
    • A Closer Look 16.3 Candy Bars: For the Love of Chocolate
    • Cultivation and Processing
    • The High Price of Chocolate
    • Coca-Cola: An “All-American” Drink
    • Other Caffeine Beverages
    • 17 Herbs and Spices
    • Essential Oils
    • History of Spices
    • Ancient Trade
    • A Closer Look 17.1 Aromatherapy: The Healing Power of Scents
    • Marco Polo
    • Age of Exploration
    • Imperialism
    • New World Discoveries
    • Spices
    • Cinnamon: The Fragrant Bark
    • Black and White Pepper
    • Cloves
    • Nutmeg and Mace
    • Ginger and Turmeric
    • Saffron
    • Hot Chilies and Other Capsicum Peppers
    • Vanilla
    • Allspice
    • Herbs
    • The Aromatic Mint
    • The Parsley Family
    • The Mustard Family
    • The Pungent Alliums
    • A Closer Look 17.2 Sweet Talk
    • 18 Materials: Cloth, Wood, and Paper
    • Fibers
    • Types
    • A Closer Look 18.1 A Tisket, a Tasket: There Are Many Types of Baskets
    • King Cotton
    • Linen: An Ancient Fabric
    • Other Bast Fibers
    • Miscellaneous Fibers
    • Rayon: “Artificial Silk”
    • Bark Cloth
    • A Closer Look 18.2 Herbs to Dye For
    • Wood and Wood Products
    • A Closer Look 18.3 Good Vibrations
    • Hardwoods and Softwoods
    • Lumber, Veneer, and Plywood
    • Fuel
    • Other Products from Trees
    • Wood Pulp
    • Paper
    • Early Writing Surfaces
    • The Art of Papermaking
    • Alternatives to Wood Pulp
    • Bamboo

Unit V Plants and Human Health

    • 19 Medicinal Plants
    • History of Plants in Medicine
    • Early Greeks and Romans
    • Age of Herbals
    • A Closer Look 19.1 Native American Medicine
    • Modern Prescription Drugs
    • Herbal Medicine Today
    • Active Principles in Plants
    • Alkaloids
    • Glycosides
    • Medicinal Plants
    • Foxglove and the Control of Heart Disease
    • Aspirin: From Willow Bark to Bayer
    • Malaria, the Fever Bark Tree, and Sweet Wormwood
    • Diabetes, French Lilac, and Metformin
    • Snakeroot, Schizophrenia, and Hypertension
    • The Burn Plant
    • Ephedrine
    • Cancer Therapy
    • Herbal Remedies: Promise and Problems
    • 20 Psychoactive Plants
    • Psychoactive Drugs
    • The Opium Poppy
    • An Ancient Curse
    • The Opium Wars
    • Opium Alkaloids
    • Heroin
    • Withdrawal
    • Marijuana
    • Early History in China and India
    • Spread to the West
    • THC and Its Psychoactive Effects
    • Medical Marijuana
    • Legal Issues
    • Cocaine
    • South American Origins
    • Freud, Holmes, and Coca-Cola
    • A Closer Look 20.1 The Tropane Alkaloids and Witchcraft
    • Coke and Crack
    • Medical Uses
    • A Deadly Drug
    • Tobacco
    • A New World Habit
    • Cultivation Practices
    • Health Risks
    • Peyote
    • Mescal Buttons
    • Native American Church
    • Kava—The Drug of Choice in the Pacific
    • Preparation of the Beverage
    • Active Components in Kava
    • Lesser Known Psychoactive Plants
    • 21 Poisonous and Allergy Plants
    • Notable Poisonous Plants
    • Poisonous Plants in the Wild
    • Poisonous Plants in the Backyard
    • A Closer Look 21.1 Allelopathy—Chemical Warfare in Plants
    • Poisonous Plants in the Home
    • Plants Poisonous to Livestock
    • Plants That Cause Mechanical Injury
    • Insecticides from Plants
    • Allergy Plants
    • Allergy and the Immune System
    • Respiratory Allergies
    • Hay Fever Plants
    • Climate Change and Allergy Plants
    • Allergy Control
    • Contact Dermatitis
    • Food Allergies
    • Latex Allergy

Unit VI Algae and Fungi: The Impact of Algae and Fungi on Human Affairs

    • 22 The Algae
    • Characteristics of the Algae
    • Classification of the Algae
    • Cyanobacteria
    • Euglenoids
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Diatoms
    • Brown Algae
    • Red Algae
    • Green Algae
    • Algae in Our Diet
    • Seaweeds
    • Biofuels from Algae
    • Other Economic Uses of Algae
    • Toxic and Harmful Algae
    • Toxic Cyanobacteria
    • A Closer Look 22.1 Drugs from the Sea
    • Red Tides
    • Pfiesteria
    • A Closer Look 22.2 Killer Alga—Story of a Deadly Invader
    • Other Toxic Algae
    • 23 Fungi in the Natural Environment
    • Fungi and Fungal-Like Organisms
    • Fungal-Like Protists
    • Slime Molds
    • The Kingdom Fungi
    • Characteristics of Fungi
    • Classification of Fungi
    • Role of Fungi in the Environment
    • Decomposers—Nature’s Recyclers
    • A Closer Look 23.1 Lichens: Algal-Fungal Partnership
    • Mycorrhizae: Root-Fungus Partnership
    • A Closer Look 23.2 Dry Rot and Other Wood Decay Fungi
    • Plant Diseases with Major Impact on Humans
    • Late Blight of Potato
    • Rusts—Threat to the World’s Breadbasket
    • Corn Smut—Blight or Delight
    • Dutch Elm Disease—Destruction in the Urban Landscape
    • Sudden Oak Death—Destruction in the Forest
    • 24 Beverages and Foods from Fungi
    • Making Wine
    • The Wine Grape
    • Harvest
    • Red or White
    • Fermentation
    • A Closer Look 24.1 Disaster in the French Vineyards
    • Clarification
    • Aging and Bottling
    • “Drinking Stars”
    • Fortified and Dessert Wines
    • Climate Change and the Wine Grape
    • The Brewing of Beer
    • Barley Malt
    • Mash, Hops, and Wort
    • Fermentation and Lagering
    • Sake, a Rice “Beer”
    • Distillation
    • The Still
    • Distilled Spirits
    • The Whiskey Rebellion
    • Tequila from Agave
    • Hard Cider
    • A Victorian Drink Revisited
    • Absinthe
    • The Green Hour
    • Active Principles
    • Absinthism
    • A Closer Look 24.2 Alcohol and Health
    • Fungi as Food
    • Edible Mushrooms
    • Fermented Foods
    • Quorn Mycoprotein
    • 25 Fungi That Affect Human Health
    • Antibiotics and Other Wonder Drugs
    • Fleming’s Discovery of Penicillin
    • Manufacture of Penicillin
    • Other Antibiotics and Antifungals
    • Fungal Poisons and Toxins
    • Mycotoxins
    • A Closer Look 25.1 The New Wonder Drugs
    • Ergot of Rye and Ergotism
    • The Destroying Angel and Toadstools
    • Soma and Hallucinogenic Fungi
    • Human Pathogens and Allergies
    • Dermatophytes
    • Systemic Mycoses
    • Allergies
    • Indoor Fungi and Toxic Molds

Unit VII Plants and the Environment

    • 26 Plant Ecology
    • The Ecosystem
    • Ecological Niche
    • Food Chains and Food Webs
    • Energy Flow and Ecological Pyramids
    • Biological Magnification
    • Biogeochemical Cycling
    • The Carbon Cycle
    • Source or Sink?
    • The Greenhouse Effect
    • Species Shift
    • Global Warming Pact
    • Ecological Succession
    • The Anthropocene Epoch
    • The Green World: Biomes
    • Deserts
    • Crops from the Desert
    • Chaparral
    • Grasslands
    • Forests
    • Harvesting Trees
    • A Closer Look 26.1 Buying Time for the Rain Forest

Appendix A Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds

Appendix B Classification of Plants and Those Organisms Traditionally Classified as Plants Discussed in Plants and Society

Appendix C Metric System: Scientific Measurement

Glossary

Index

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