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Pizzo & Poplack's Pediatric Oncology

Pizzo & Poplack's Pediatric Oncology 8th Edition

By: Susan M Blaney Lee J Helman Peter C Adamson
ISBN-10: 1975124790
/ ISBN-13: 9781975124823
Edition: 8th Edition
Language: English
				
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    • 1 Epidemiology of Childhood Cancer
    • Cancer Surveillance and Descriptive Epidemiology
    • Analytic Epidemiology
    • Summary and Future Considerations
    • 2 Heredity and Childhood Cancer
    • Constitutional Chromosomal Abnormalities
    • Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities
    • Overgrowth Disorders and Imprinting Errors
    • Autosomal Dominant Disorders
    • Autosomal Recessive Disorders
    • Issue in Genetic Testing for the Pediatric Oncology Patient
    • 3 Molecular and Genetic Basis of Childhood Cancer
    • General Nature of Cancer-Associated Genetic Aberrations
    • Comprehensive Analysis of the Cancer Genome
    • Germline Mutations
    • Somatically Acquired Chromosomal Aberrations and Mutation
    • Gross Chromosomal Rearrangements
    • Oncogenic Consequences of Gross Chromosomal Rearrangements—General Themes
    • Chromosomal Translocations Lead to Activation of Proto-Oncogenes and Generation of Oncogenic Fusion Genes
    • Chromosomal Deletion Leads to Inactivation of Tumor Suppressor Genes
    • Gene Amplification
    • Point Mutations Leading to Gene Activation or Inactivation
    • Comprehensive Genomic Studies of Pediatric Tumors
    • Mechanisms of Malignant Cell Transformation, Growth, and Clonal Expansion
    • Outlook for Molecularly Targeted Therapies
    • Summary
    • 4 Biology of Childhood Cancer
    • Gene Regulation
    • Protein Regulation
    • Signal Transduction
    • Cell Proliferation
    • Programmed Cell Death
    • Cancer Metabolism
    • Metastasis and the Tumor Microenvironment
    • 5 Tumor Immunology of Childhood Cancer
    • Overview of the Immune System
    • Modern Concepts of Immune Surveillance
    • T-Cell Recognition of Cancer
    • Innate Immune Cells and the Tumor Microenvironment
    • Immune Function in Cancer Patients
    • Immunotherapy of Cancer
    • Summary and Future Directions

Section 2 Diagnosis and Evaluation of the Child with Cancer

    • 6 Clinical Assessment and Differential Diagnosis of Suspected Childhood Cancer
    • Children at Risk
    • Time to Diagnosis
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Establishing the Diagnosis
    • Summary
    • 7 Pathology and Molecular Diagnosis of Leukemias and Lymphomas
    • Introduction
    • Ancillary Studies
    • Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    • Myeloid Neoplasms
    • Mature Lymphoid Neoplasms
    • Histiocytic Disorders
    • 8 Diagnostic Pathology of Pediatric Solid and Central Nervous System Malignancies
    • Introduction
    • Brief Pathologic Classification of Pediatric Solid Tumors
    • Traditional Approaches to Childhood Solid Tumor Diagnosis
    • Molecular Genetic Evaluation of Childhood Cancer
    • Integrated Diagnostic Molecular Pathology of Pediatric Solid Tumors
    • The Holistic Cancer Genome
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • Emerging Technologies for Diagnosis
    • The Future of Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis
    • 9 Imaging Studies in the Diagnosis of Childhood Cancer
    • Relative Merits of Available Imaging Procedures
    • General Concepts of Pediatric Tumor Imaging
    • Future Directions

Section 3 Principles of Multimodal Therapy

    • 10 General Principles of Chemotherapy
    • Principles of Cancer Chemotherapy
    • Clinical Pharmacology of Anticancer Drugs
    • Alkylating Agents
    • Nonclassical Alkylating Agents
    • Antimetabolites
    • Purine Antimetabolites
    • Pyrimidine Antimetabolites
    • Topoisomerase Inhibitors
    • Tubulin Inhibitors
    • Miscellaneous Agents
    • Small-Molecule Pathway Inhibitors
    • Therapeutic Antibodies
    • Perspectives
    • 11 General Principles of Cellular Immunotherapy
    • T Cells
    • Natural Killer Cells
    • γδ Thymus-Derived T Cells
    • Invariant Natural Killer T Cells
    • Strategies to Improve Adoptive Cellular Therapies
    • Conclusions
    • 12 General Principles of Targeted Therapy
    • Introduction
    • Basic Principles for the Clinical Development of Molecularly Targeted Agents
    • Therapies Targeted to Apoptosis Pathways
    • Targeting Extracellular Survival Signaling Pathways
    • Targeting Development, Differentiation, and Other Intracellular Processes
    • Targeting Angiogenesis
    • Conclusions
    • 13 General Principles of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
    • Autologous Transplantation—High-Dose Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell (Hsc) Rescue
    • Allogeneic Transplantation
    • Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Preparative Regimens
    • Transplantation for Leukemia
    • Transplantation for Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
    • Transplantation for Solid Tumors
    • Complications After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
    • Late Effects After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
    • Future Directions
    • 14 General Principles of Radiation Oncology
    • Biologic Basis of Radiation Therapy
    • Physical Basis of Radiation Therapy
    • Interactions of Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy
    • Radiation Effects on Normal Tissues
    • 15 General Principles of Surgery
    • Preoperative Considerations for the Oncologist
    • Perioperative Considerations for the Oncologist
    • Minimally Invasive Surgery

Section 4 Management of Common Cancers of Childhood

    • 16 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    • Epidemiology
    • Genetic Risk Factors
    • Environmental Risk Factors
    • Pathogenesis
    • Classification of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    • Molecular Genomics of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    • Pharmacogenetics
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Assessing Treatment Response
    • Prognostic Factors
    • Treatment
    • Treatment of Relapse
    • Late Effects of Treatment
    • Future Challenges
    • 17A Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes
    • Historical Background and Definitions
    • Epidemiology of Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome
    • Biologic Basis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome: From Normal Progenitors to Leukemia
    • Methodologies for Classifying Myeloid Malignancies
    • Defining Subtypes: Evolution of Diagnostic Classification of Myeloid Malignancies
    • Clinical and Laboratory Presentation
    • Prognostic Factors and Implications of Risk Group Stratification on Treatment
    • Evolution of Risk Adapted Therapy
    • Unique Aml Subtypes and Settings
    • The Treatment of Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    • Survivorship
    • 17B Myeloproliferative Neoplasms of Childhood
    • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
    • Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia
    • Polycythemia Vera and Essential Thrombocythemia
    • 18 Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Biologic Considerations
    • Epidemiology, Pathogenesis & Pathology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Treatment and Outcome
    • Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Approach to Patients with Primary Refractory Disease or Relapse of Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Late Effects
    • Future Considerations
    • 19 Malignant Non–Hodgkin Lymphomas in Children
    • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Overview
    • NHL Cellular Classifications: Specific Biologic and Clinical Considerations
    • Conclusions
    • Management Summary
    • 20 Lymphoproliferative Disorders and Malignancies Related to Immunodeficiencies
    • Viral Pathogens and the Development of Malignancies
    • Epstein–Barr Virus and Malignancies
    • Human herpesvirus-8 and Malignancies in Immunodeficient Patients
    • Malignancies in Primary Immunodeficiencies
    • Secondary Immunodeficiency and Cancer
    • Malignancies in the Posttransplant Patient
    • Summary
    • 21 Histiocytoses
    • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
    • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
    • Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (Rosai–Dorfman Disease)
    • Juvenile Xanthogranuloma
    • Malignant Histiocytic Diseases
    • Summary
    • Management Summary
    • 22A Gliomas, Ependymomas, and Other Nonembryonal Tumors of the Central Nervous System
    • Epidemiology
    • Inherited Syndromes Associated with Central Nervous System Tumors
    • Ionizing Radiation and Central Nervous System Tumors
    • Pathologic Classification of Central Nervous System Tumors
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Neuroimaging in Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors: Current Status and Future Directions
    • Neurosurgery: Diagnosis and Treatment
    • Radiation Therapy
    • Principles of Chemotherapy
    • Ependymoma
    • Low-Grade Gliomas
    • Tumors of the Optic Pathway
    • Supratentorial High-Grade Gliomas
    • Brainstem Gliomas
    • Craniopharyngioma
    • Choroid Plexus Neoplasms
    • Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors
    • Sequelae of Treatment
    • 22B Tumors of the Central Nervous System: Embryonal and Pineal Region Tumors
    • Embryonal Tumors
    • Medulloblastoma
    • Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor
    • Embryonal Tumors with Multilayered Rosettes
    • Other Rare Embryonal Tumors
    • Pineal Region Tumors
    • Germ Cell Tumors
    • 23 Neuroblastoma
    • Epidemiology
    • Genetic Predisposition
    • Molecular Pathogenesis
    • Pathology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Paraneoplastic Syndromes
    • Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation
    • Staging and Treatment Response
    • Prognostic Considerations
    • Principals of Initial Therapy
    • Late Effects
    • Future Considerations
    • 24 Renal Tumors
    • Epidemiology
    • Genetics and Molecular Biology
    • Pathology
    • Clinical Presentation and Diagnostic Workup
    • Prognostic Factors
    • Treatment of Wilms Tumor
    • Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney
    • Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor
    • Renal Cell Carcinoma
    • Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma
    • 25 Rhabdomyosarcoma
    • Epidemiology and Genetic Susceptibility
    • Molecular Biology
    • Animal Models
    • Pathology
    • Patterns of Spread and Clinical Presentation
    • Methods of Diagnosis
    • Staging
    • Prognostic Considerations
    • Treatment
    • Perspectives
    • 26 Nonrhabdomyosarcoma Soft-Tissue Sarcomas
    • Epidemiology
    • Pathology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Prognostic Factors
    • Staging
    • General Treatment Considerations
    • Radiation Therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Selected Specific Diseases (Grouped First by Biologic Potential and then in Alphabetical Order)
    • Intermediate, Locally Aggressive Soft-Tissue Tumors
    • Intermediate, Rarely Metastasizing Soft-Tissue Tumors
    • Future Directions
    • 27 Ewing Sarcoma
    • Nomenclature
    • Biology
    • Clinical Presentation and Staging
    • Pathology
    • Initial Treatment
    • Treatment
    • Management of Recurrent Disease
    • Late Effects
    • Summary and Conclusions
    • 28 Osteosarcoma
    • Introduction
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Epidemiology
    • Pathology
    • Biology
    • Treatment
    • New Drugs
    • Follow-Up and Late Effects
    • 29 Germ Cell Tumors
    • Nomenclature
    • Embryogenesis and Histogenesis of Gonadal Tumors
    • Genetics and Molecular Biology
    • Pathology
    • Tumor Markers
    • Clinical Presentation, Staging, and Risk Assignment
    • Treatment Overview
    • Surgical Approach: Ovarian Tumors
    • Salvage Strategies
    • Toxicity and Late Effects
    • Future Considerations
    • 30 Endocrine Tumors
    • Pituitary Tumors
    • Parathyroid Tumors
    • Thyroid Tumors
    • Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
    • Adrenal Tumors
    • Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
    • 31 Liver Tumors
    • Approach to Children with a Liver Mass
    • Hepatoblastoma
    • Staging, Pretreatment Extent of Tumor (Pretext) and Current Risk Group Stratification of Hb
    • Surgery in HCC
    • Hepatocellular Benign and Premalignant Epithelial Tumors
    • Biliary Epithelial and Mixed Biliary-Hepatocellular Tumors
    • Mixed Epithelial/Mesenchymal or Uncertain Origin
    • Mesenchymal Tumors, Malignant
    • Metastatic and Other Malignant Tumors Involving the Liver
    • 32 Retinoblastoma
    • Epidemiology
    • Anatomy
    • Genetics
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Diagnosis
    • Pathology
    • Metastasis and Recurrence
    • Trilateral Retinoblastoma and Other Tumors
    • Staging
    • Therapeutic Options
    • Immediate Future Directions
    • 33 Rare Tumors
    • Head and Neck
    • Chest
    • Abdomen
    • Genitourinary System/Pelvis
    • Skin
    • Bone Tumors
    • Conclusion

Section 5 Supportive Care of Children with Cancer

    • 34 Oncologic Emergencies
    • Cardiothoracic Emergencies
    • Gastrointestinal Emergencies
    • Genitourinary Emergencies
    • Metabolic and Endocrine Emergencies
    • Neurologic Emergencies
    • Therapy-Associated Emergencies
    • Summary
    • 35 Hematologic Supportive Care
    • Anemia
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Other Transfusion Products
    • Complications of Transfusion
    • Hematopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors
    • 36 Infectious Complications in Children with Underlying Malignancy
    • Host Defenses: Innate and Adaptive Immunity
    • Care of Febrile Cancer Patients
    • Empirical Antibacterial Treatment of Febrile Neutropenic Patients
    • Antifungal Agents
    • Antiviral Agents
    • Anti-Pneumocystis Pneumonia Agents
    • Management of Unexplained Fever in the Neutropenic Patient
    • Evaluation and Management of Documented Infections
    • Prevention of Infection in Children with Cancer
    • Prophylactic Antibiotics
    • Immunization
    • Granulocyte Transfusions
    • Recombinant Human Cytokines
    • Adoptive T-Cell Therapy
    • Future Directions
    • 37 Nursing Support of the Child with Cancer
    • Direct Patient Care Nursing Roles
    • Advanced Practice Roles
    • Research Roles
    • Nursing Standards of Care
    • Providing Expert Clinical Nursing Care
    • Professional Development
    • 38 Nutritional Supportive Care
    • Definition of Cancer Cachexia
    • Obesity and the Pediatric Patient with Cancer
    • The Population at Risk
    • Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • Clinical Assessment of Nutritional Status
    • Nutrition Intervention Techniques
    • Vitamins in Treating the Pediatric Patient with Cancer
    • Nutritional Concerns of Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Cancer
    • Conclusion
    • 39 Rehabilitation of the Child with Cancer
    • Rehabilitation Problems
    • Specific Childhood Cancers: Rehabilitation Issues
    • Spinal Cord Tumors
    • Bone Tumors
    • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    • 40 Pain and Symptom Management
    • Introduction
    • Pain
    • Etiologies of Cancer Pain
    • Multimodal Management of Pain
    • Pharmaceutical Management of Cancer-Related Pain in Children
    • Interventional Procedures for Pain Management
    • Somnolence, Fatigue, Insomnia
    • Summary
    • 41 Psychosocial Support for the Child and Family
    • Principles and Essential Knowledge for Health Professionals
    • The Initial Diagnostic Period: A Time of Crisis
    • Treatment: Reestablishing Equilibrium
    • Relapses: A Second Crisis
    • Survivorship
    • Family Considerations
    • Psychosocial and Psychiatric Interventions
    • Final Word
    • 42 Educational Issues for Children with Cancer
    • School Reentry: Considerations and Stakeholders
    • Evidence Base and Standards of Care
    • Components of School Reentry Programs
    • Special Education Services in Childhood Cancer Survivors
    • Conclusions and Future Directions
    • 43 Palliative Care for the Child with Cancer
    • The Interdisciplinary Nature of Palliative Care
    • Palliative Care for Children with Cancer
    • Other Considerations at the End of Life

Section 6 Other Considerations in Childhood Cancer

    • 44 Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and Transitional Care to Adulthood
    • Cancer Incidence and Survival Trends
    • Treatment-Related Toxicity
    • Clinical Trial Enrollment
    • Psychosocial Issues
    • Cancer Survivorship
    • Conclusions
    • Management Summary
    • 45 Late Effects of Childhood Cancer and its Treatment
    • Burden of Morbidity
    • Standardized Recommendations for Follow-Up of Childhood Cancer
    • Auditory Complications
    • Neurocognitive Sequelae
    • Cardiovascular Function
    • Pulmonary Function
    • Genitourinary Abnormalities
    • Gastrointestinal Function
    • Gonadal Function
    • Other Endocrinologic Outcomes
    • Growth Hormone Deficiency
    • Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
    • Musculoskeletal and Related Tissues
    • Subsequent Malignant Neoplasms
    • Late Mortality Among Childhood Cancer Survivors
    • New Agents and New Potential Late Effects
    • Cancer Survivorship—Future Research Opportunities
    • 46 Cancer Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct, Analysis, and Reporting
    • Planning a Clinical Trial
    • Feasibility Assessment
    • Protocol Writing
    • Regulatory Affairs
    • Conduct of the Clinical Trial
    • Analyzing Clinical Trial Data
    • Reporting Results of Clinical Trials
    • 47 Ethical Considerations in Pediatric Oncology
    • Informed Consent and Decision-Making
    • Ethics of Research Involving Children with Cancer
    • Ethical Issues at the End of Life
    • Privacy and Confidentiality
    • Genetics and Genomics
    • Population Inequities in Childhood Cancer Care and Outcomes
    • Caring for Health Care Providers
    • Conclusion
    • 48 The Other Side of the Bed: What Providers Can Learn from Listening to Patients and Their Families
    • General Issues of Communication and Trust
    • Major Events in the Care of Patients and Their Families
    • Conclusion
    • 49 Complementary and Integrative Therapies in Pediatric Oncology
    • History
    • Definitions
    • Epidemiology
    • Patients’ and Families’ Reasons for Using Complementary and Integrative Therapies
    • Talking with Patients and Families
    • Integrative Therapy Modalities
    • Biochemical Therapies
    • Toxicities and Other Risks
    • Lifestyle Therapy: Diet, Exercise, Environment, and Mind–Body
    • Environment
    • Mind–Body
    • Biomechanical Therapies
    • Bioenergetic Therapies
    • Summary
    • 50 Economic Issues in Pediatric Cancer
    • Patient–Physician Communication about Cost of Cancer Care
    • Methods of Economic Evaluation
    • Financing Care
    • Family Impact
    • Conclusion
    • 51 Pediatric Cancer: Advocacy and Policy Issues for Patients, Families, and Survivors
    • Landscape of the Childhood Cancer Advocacy Community
    • Advocates’ Central Policy Priorities
    • Ongoing and Emerging Issues for Advocates
    • 52 Maximizing Safety in Cancer Treatment
    • Background
    • Recognizing and Reporting of Problems
    • Event Reporting
    • Preventing Errors
    • 53 Pediatric Oncology in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
    • Epidemiology and Burden of Pediatric Cancer in LMICs
    • Health Systems and Sociocultural Barriers to Pediatric Cancer Care in LMICs
    • Shortage of Multispecialty Expertise for Pediatric Cancer Care
    • Diagnosis and Risk-Stratification Modalities of Pediatric Cancer in LMICs
    • Access to Cancer Treatment Modalities: Drugs, Pediatric Surgery, and Radiotherapy
    • Supportive Care for Children on Cancer Treatment in LMICs
    • Palliative Care for Children with Cancer in LMICs
    • Survivorship Care for Children with Cancer in LMICs
    • Pediatric Oncology Research in LMICs

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