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Nutrition

Nutrition 15th Edition

By: Frances Sizer Ellie Whitney
ISBN-10: 1337906379
/ ISBN-13: 9780357390672
Edition: 15th Edition
Language: English
				
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Chapter 1: Food Choices and Human Health

    • A Lifetime of Nourishment
    • The Diet–Health Connection
    • Genetics, Nutrition, and Individuality
    • Think Fitness Why Be Physically Active?
    • Other Lifestyle Choices
    • The Nation’s Nutrition Objectives
    • The Human Body and Its Food
    • Meet the Nutrients
    • Can I Live on Just Supplements?
    • The Challenge of Choosing Foods
    • The Abundance of Foods to Choose From
    • How, Exactly, Can I Recognize a Nutritious Diet?
    • Why People Choose Foods
    • The Science of Nutrition
    • The Scientific Approach
    • Scientific Challenge
    • Can I Trust the Media for Nutrition Information?
    • National Nutrition Research
    • Changing Behaviors
    • The Process of Change
    • Taking Stock and Setting Goals
    • Start Now
    • A consumer’sguide to: Reading Nutrition News
    • Foo dfeature: Nutrient Density: How to Get Enough Nutrients without Too Many Calories
    • CONTROVERSY 1: Sorting Imposters from Real Nutrition Experts

Chapter 2: Nutrition Tools—Standards and Guidelines

    • Nutrient Recommendations
    • Two Sets of Standards
    • The DRI Lists and Purposes
    • Understanding the DRI
    • How the Committee Establishes DRI Values—An RDA Example
    • Determining Individual Requirements
    • Setting Energy Requirements
    • Why Are Daily Values Used on Labels?
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Think Fitness: Recommendations for Daily Physical Activity
    • Diet Planning Using the USDA Eating Patterns
    • The Food Groups and Subgroups
    • Choosing Nutrient-Dense Foods
    • Diet Planning
    • MyPlate Educational Tool
    • Flexibility of the USDA Eating Patterns
    • Food Lists for Weight Management
    • A consumer’s Guide to: Controlling Portion Sizes at Home and Away
    • The Last Word on Diet Planning
    • Checking Out Food Labels
    • What Food Labels Must Include
    • What Food Labels May Include
    • Food feature: Getting a Feel for the Nutrients
    • CONTROVERSY 2: Are Some Foods Superfoods for Health?

Chapter 3: The Remarkable Body

    • The Body’s Cells
    • Genes Control Functions
    • Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems
    • The Body Fluids and the Circulatory System
    • The Hormonal and NervousSystems
    • What Do Hormones Have to Do with Nutrition?
    • How Does the Nervous System Interact with Nutrition?
    • The Digestive System
    • Why Do People Like Sugar, Salt, and Fat?
    • The Digestive Tract Structures
    • The Mechanical Aspect of Digestion
    • The Chemical Aspect of Digestion
    • Microbes in the Digestive Tract
    • Are Some Food Combinations More Easily Digested than Others?
    • If “I Am What I Eat,” Then How Does a Peanut Butter Sandwich Become “Me”?
    • Absorption and Transport of Nutrients
    • A Letter from Your Digestive Tract
    • The Excretory System
    • Storage Systems
    • When I Eat More than My Body Needs, What Happens to the Extra Nutrients?
    • Variations in Nutrient Stores
    • Conclusion
    • Controversy 3: Alcohol Use: Risks and Benefits

Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates: Sugar,Starch, Glycogen, and Fiber

    • A Close Look at Carbohydrates
    • Sugars
    • Starch
    • Glycogen
    • Fibers
    • Summary
    • The Need for Carbohydrates
    • If I Want to Lose Weight and Stay Healthy, Should I Avoid Carbohydrates?
    • Why Do Nutrition Experts RecommendFiber-Rich Foods?
    • Fiber Intakes and Excesses
    • Whole Grains
    • From Carbohydrates to Glucose
    • Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrate
    • A Consumer’s Guide to: Finding Whole-Grain Foods
    • Why Do Some People Have Trouble Digesting Milk?
    • The Body’s Use of Glucose
    • Splitting Glucose for Energy
    • How Is Glucose Regulated in the Body?
    • Excess Glucose and Body Fatness
    • Think Fitness: What Can I Eat to Make Workouts Easier?
    • The Glycemic Index of Food
    • What Happens If Blood Glucose Regulation Fails?
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Conclusion
    • Food Feature: Finding the Carbohydrates in Foods
    • CONTROVERSY 4: Are Added Sugars “Bad” for You?

Chapter 5: The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols

    • Introducing the Lipids
    • How Are Fats Useful to the Body?
    • How Are Fats Useful in Food?
    • A Close Look at Lipids
    • Triglycerides: Fatty Acids and Glycerol
    • Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Phospholipids and Sterols
    • Lipids in the Body
    • How Are Fats Digested and Absorbed?
    • Transport of Fats
    • Storing and Using the Body’s Fat
    • Dietary Fat, Cholesterol, and Health
    • Recommendations for Lipid Intakes
    • Lipoproteins and Heart Disease Risk
    • What Does Food Cholesterol Have to Do with Blood Cholesterol?
    • Recommendations Applied
    • Think Fitness: Why Exercise the Body for the Health of the Heart?
    • Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Why Do I Need Essential Fatty Acids?
    • Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Families
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Requirements and Sources
    • A consumer’s Guide to: Weighing Seafood’s Risks and Benefits
    • The Effects of Processing on Unsaturated Fats
    • What Is “Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil,” and What’s It Doing in My Chocolate Chip Cookies?
    • What Are Trans-Fatty Acids, and Are They Harmful?
    • Fat in the Diet
    • Get to Know the Fats in Foods
    • Fats in Protein Foods
    • Milk and Milk Products
    • Grains
    • Food Feature: Defensive Dining
    • CONTROVERSY 5: Butter Really Back? The Lipid Guidelines Debate

Chapter 6: The Proteins and Amino Acids

    • The Structure of Proteins
    • Amino Acids
    • How Do Amino Acids Build Proteins?
    • The Variety of Proteins
    • Think Fitness: Can Eating Extra Protein Make Muscles
    • Denaturation of Proteins
    • Digestion and Absorption of Dietary Protein
    • Protein Digestion
    • What Happens to Amino Acids after Protein Is Digested?
    • The Importance of Protein
    • The Roles of Body Proteins
    • Providing Energy and Glucose
    • The Fate of an Amino Acid
    • A consumer’s Guide to: Evaluating Protein and Amino Acid Supplements
    • Food Protein: Need and Quality
    • How Much Protein Do People Need?
    • Nitrogen Balance
    • Protein Quality
    • Protein Deficiency and Excess
    • What Happens When People Consume Too Little Protein?
    • Is It Possible to Consume Too Much Protein?
    • Is a Gluten-Free Diet Best for Health?
    • Food Feature: Getting Enough but Not Too Much Protein
    • CONTROVERS Y 6: Are Vegetarian or Meat-Containing Diets Better for Health?

Chapter 7: The Vitamins

    • Definition and Classification of Vitamins
    • Vitamin Precursors
    • Two Classes of Vitamins: Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble
    • The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
    • Vitamin A
    • Roles of Vitamin A and Consequences of Deficiency
    • Vitamin A Toxicity
    • Vitamin A Recommendations and Sources
    • Beta-Carotene
    • Vitamin D
    • Roles of Vitamin D
    • Too Little Vitamin D—A Danger to Bones
    • Too Much Vitamin D—A Danger to Soft Tissues
    • Vitamin D from Sunlight
    • Vitamin D Intake Recommendations
    • Vitamin D Food Sources
    • Roles of Vitamin E
    • Vitamin E Deficiency
    • Vitamin E
    • Toxicity of Vitamin E
    • Vitamin E Recommendations and U.S. Intakes
    • Vitamin E Food Sources
    • Vitamin K
    • Roles of Vitamin K
    • Vitamin K Deficiency
    • Vitamin K Toxicity
    • Vitamin K Requirements and Sources
    • The Water-Soluble Vitamins
    • Vitamin C
    • The Roles of Vitamin C
    • Deficiency Symptoms and Intakes
    • Vitamin C Toxicity
    • Vitamin C Recommendations
    • Vitamin C Food Sources
    • The B Vitamins in Unison
    • B Vitamin Roles in Metabolism
    • B Vitamin Deficiencies
    • The B Vitamins as Individuals
    • Thiamin
    • A consumer ’sguide to: The Effects of Food Processing on
    • Riboflavin Roles
    • Niacin
    • Folate
    • Vitamin B12
    • Vitamin B6
    • Biotin and Pantothenic Acid
    • Non–B Vitamins
    • Food Feature: Choosing Foods Rich in Vitamins
    • CONTROVERSY 7: Vitamin Supplements: What are the Benefits and Risks?

Chapter 8: Water and Minerals

    • Water
    • Why Is Water the Most Indispensable Nutrient?
    • The Body’s Water Balance
    • Quenching Thirst and Balancing Losses
    • How Much Water Do I Need to Drink in a Day?
    • A consumer’s Guide to: Liquid Calories
    • Drinking Water: Types, Safety, and Sources
    • Hard Water or Soft Water—Which Is Best?
    • Water Safety and Sources
    • Body Fluids and Minerals
    • Water Follows Salt
    • Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
    • Acid-Base Balance
    • The Major Minerals
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Magnesium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
    • Sulfate
    • The Trace Minerals
    • Iodine
    • Iron
    • Think Fitness: Exercise-Deficiency Fatigue
    • Zinc
    • Selenium
    • Fluoride
    • Chromium
    • Copper
    • Other Trace Minerals and Some Candidates
    • Food Feature: Meeting the Need for Calcium
    • CONTROVERSY 8: Osteoporosis: Can Lifestyle Choices Reduce the Risk?

Chapter 9: Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight

    • The Problems of Too Little or Too Much Body Fat
    • What Are the Risks from Underweight?
    • What Are the Risks from Too Much Body Fat?
    • What Are the Risks from Central Obesity?
    • How Fat Is Too Fat?
    • The Body’s Energy Balance
    • Energy In and Energy Out
    • How Many Calories Do I Need Each Day?
    • Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)
    • The DRI Method of Estimating Energy Requirements
    • Body Weight vs. Body Fatness
    • Using the Body Mass Index (BMI)
    • Measuring Body Composition and Fat Distribution
    • How Much Body Fat Is Ideal?
    • The Appetite and Its Control
    • Hunger and Appetite—“Go” Signals
    • Satiation and Satiety—“Stop” Signals
    • Inside-the-Body Theories of Obesity
    • Outside-the-Body Theories of Obesity
    • Think Fitness: Activity for a Healthy Body Weight
    • How the Body Loses and Gains Weight
    • The Body’s Response to Energy Deficit
    • The Body’s Response to Energy Surplus
    • Achieving and Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight
    • A consumer’s Guide to: Fad Diets
    • What Food Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
    • Physical Activity Strategies
    • What Strategies Are Best for Weight Gain?
    • Medical Treatment of Obesity
    • Obesity Medications
    • Obesity Surgery
    • Herbal Products and Gimmicks
    • Once I’ve Changed My Weight, How Can I Stay Changed?
    • Conclusion
    • CONTROVERSY 9: The Perils of Eating Disorders

Chapter 10: Performance Nutrition

    • The Benefits of Fitness
    • The Nature of Fitness
    • Physical Activity Guidelines
    • The Essentials of Fitness
    • How Do Muscles Adapt to Physical Activity?
    • How Does Aerobic Training Benefit the Heart?
    • Three Energy Systems
    • The Muscles’ Energy Reservoir
    • The Anaerobic Energy System
    • The Aerobic Energy System
    • The Active Body’s Use of Fuels
    • The Need for Food Energy
    • Carbohydrate: Vital for Exercisers
    • Carbohydrate Recommendations for Athletes
    • Fat as Fuel for Physical Activity
    • Fat Recommendations for Athletes
    • Protein for Building Muscles and for Fuel
    • Protein Recommendations for Athletes
    • Do Athletes Need Nutrient Supplements?
    • Vitamins and Minerals—Keys to Performance
    • Iron—A Mineral of Concern
    • Fluids and Temperature Regulation in Physical Activity
    • Water Losses during Physical Activity
    • Fluid and Electrolyte Needs during Physical Activity
    • A Consumer’s Guide to: Selecting Sports Drinks
    • Other Beverages
    • Putting It All Together
    • Food Feature: Choosing a Performance Diet
    • CONTROVERSY 10: Ergogenic Aids: Breakthroughs, Gimmicks, or Dangers?

Chapter 11: Nutrition and Chronic Diseases

    • Causation of Chronic Diseases
    • Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)
    • Atherosclerosis and Hypertension
    • Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
    • Preventive Measures against CVD
    • Think Fitness: Ways to Include Physical Activity in a Day
    • Diabetes
    • How Does Type 2 Diabetes Develop?
    • Harms from Diabetes
    • Diabetes Prevention and Management
    • Cancer
    • The Cancer Disease Process
    • A Consumer’s Guide to: Deciding about CAM
    • Cancer Risk Factors
    • Cancer Prevention
    • Conclusion
    • Food Feature: The DASH Diet: Preventive Medicine
    • CONTROVERS Y 11: Nutritional Genomics: Can It Deliver on Its Promises?

Chapter 12: Food Safety and Food Technology

    • Microbes and Food Safety
    • How Do Microbes in Food Cause Illness in the Body?
    • Food Safety from Farm to Plate
    • Safe Food Practices for Individuals
    • Which Foods Are Most Likely to Cause Illness?
    • Protein Foods
    • Raw Produce
    • Other Foods
    • Advances in Microbial Food Safety
    • Is Irradiation Safe?
    • Other Technologies
    • Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants in Foods
    • Natural Toxins in Foods
    • Pesticides
    • A Consumer’s Guide to: Understanding Organic Foods
    • Animal Drugs—What Are the Risks?
    • Environmental Contaminants
    • Are Food Additives Safe?
    • Regulations Governing Additives
    • Additives to Improve Safety and Quality
    • Flavoring Agents
    • Fat Replacers and Artificial Fats
    • Incidental Food Additives
    • Conclusion
    • Food Feature: Handling Real-Life Challenges to Food Safety
    • CONTROVER SY 12: Genetically Engineered Foods: What Are the Pros and Cons?

Chapter 13: Life Cycle Nutrition: Mother and Infant

    • Pregnancy: The Impact of Nutrition on the Future
    • Preparing for Pregnancy
    • The Events of Pregnancy
    • Increased Needs for Nutrients
    • Food Assistance Programs
    • How Much Weight Should a Woman Gain during Pregnancy?
    • Weight Loss after Pregnancy
    • Should Pregnant Women Be Physically Active?
    • Teen Pregnancy
    • Think Fitness Physical Activities for Pregnant Women
    • Why Do Some Women Crave Pickles and Ice Cream While Others Can’t Keep Anything Down?
    • Some Cautions for Pregnant Women
    • Drinking during Pregnancy
    • Alcohol’s Effects
    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • Experts’ Advice
    • Troubleshooting
    • Diabetes
    • Hypertension
    • Preeclampsia
    • Lactation
    • Nutrition during Lactation
    • When Should a Woman Not Breastfeed?
    • Feeding the Infant
    • Nutrient Needs
    • Why Is Breast Milk So Good for Babies?
    • Formula Feeding
    • A consumer’s Guide to: Formula Advertising versus Breastfeeding Advocacy
    • An Infant’s First Solid Foods
    • Looking Ahead
    • Food Feature: Mealtimes with Infants
    • CONTROVERSY 13: Childhood Obesity and Early Chronic Diseases

Chapter 14: Child, Teen, and Older Adult

    • Early and Middle Childhood
    • Feeding a Healthy Young Child
    • Mealtimes and Snacking
    • How Do Nutrient Deficiencies Affect a Child’s Brain?
    • The Problem of Lead
    • Food Allergies, Intolerances, and Aversions
    • Can Diet Make a Child Hyperactive?
    • Dental Caries
    • Is Breakfast Really the Most Important Meal of the Day for Children?
    • How Nourishing Are the Meals Served at School?
    • Nutrition in Adolescence
    • Nutrient Needs
    • Common Concerns
    • Eating Patterns and Nutrient Intakes
    • The Later Years
    • A consumer’s Guide to: Nutrition for PMS Relief
    • Nutrition in the Later Years
    • Energy, Activity, and the Muscles
    • Protein Needs
    • Think Fitness: Benefits of Physical Activity for the Older Adult
    • Carbohydrates and Fiber
    • Fats and Arthritis
    • Water and the Minerals
    • Can Diet Choices Lengthen Life?
    • Aging, Immunity, and Inflammation
    • Can Diet Affect the Course of Alzheimer’s Disease?
    • Food Choices of Older Adults
    • Food Feature: Single Survival and Nutrition
    • CONTROVERS 14: Nutrient–Drug Interactions:Who Should Be Concerned?

Chapter 15: Hunger and the Future of Food

    • U.S. Food Insecurity
    • Food Poverty in the United States
    • What U.S. Food Programs Address Low Food Security?
    • World Poverty and Hunger
    • The Malnutrition of Extreme Poverty
    • Hidden Hunger—Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies
    • Two Faces of Childhood Malnutrition
    • Medical Nutrition Therapy
    • The Future Food Supply and the Environment
    • Threats to the Food Supply
    • Fisheries and Food Waste
    • How Can People Help?
    • Government Action
    • Private and Community Enterprises
    • Educators and Students
    • Food and Nutrition Professionals
    • Individuals
    • Conclusion
    • A consumer’s Guide to: Making “Green” Choices (Without Getting “Greenwashed”)
    • CONTROVERSY 15: How Can We Feed Ourselves Sustainably?

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