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Mirror for Humanity: Concise Introduction Cultrual Anthropology

Mirror for Humanity: Concise Introduction Cultrual Anthropology 12th Edition

By: Conrad Kottak
/ ISBN-13: 9781260414646
Edition: 12th Edition
Language: English
				
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Human Adaptability

    • Adaptation, Variation, and Change
    • Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology

General Anthropology

The Subdisciplines of Anthropology

    • Cultural Anthropology
    • Anthropological Archaeology
    • Biological Anthropology
    • Linguistic Anthropology

Applied Anthropology

Anthropology and Other Academic Fields

    • A Humanistic Science
    • Cultural Anthropology and Sociology

Anthropology Today: School of Hope

Summary

Chapter 2 Culture

What Is Culture?

    • Culture Is Learned
    • Culture Is Symbolic
    • Culture Is Shared
    • Culture and Nature
    • Culture Is All-Encompassing and Integrated
    • Culture Is Instrumental, Adaptive, and Maladaptive

Culture’s Evolutionary Basis

    • What We Share with Other Primates
    • How We Differ from Other Primates

Universality, Generality, and Particularity

    • Universals and Generalities
    • Particularity: Patterns of Culture

Culture and the Individual

Levels of Culture

Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights

Mechanisms of Cultural Change

Globalization

Anthropology Today: Preserving Cultural Heritage

Summary

Chapter 3 Doing Anthropology

What Do Anthropologists Do?

Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology

Ethnography: Anthropology’s Distinctive Strategy

    • Observation and Participant Observation
    • Conversation, Interviewing, and Interview Schedules
    • The Genealogical Method
    • Key Cultural Consultants
    • Life Histories
    • Local Beliefs and Perceptions, and the Ethnographer’s
    • The Evolution of Ethnography
    • Problem-Oriented Ethnography
    • Longitudinal Studies, Team Research, and Multisited Ethnography

Survey Research

Doing Anthropology Right and Wrong: Ethical Issues

    • Ownership Issues
    • The Code of Ethics
    • Anthropologists and the Military

Anthropology Today: Online Ethnography

Summary

Chapter 4 Language and Communication

Language

Nonhuman Primate Communication

    • Call Systems
    • Sign Language
    • The Origin of Language

Nonverbal Communication

    • Kinesics
    • Personal Space and Displays of Affection

The Structure of Language

Language, Thought, and Culture

    • The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    • Focal Vocabulary

Sociolinguistics

    • Social and Linguistic Variation
    • The Language of Restaurant Food
    • Linguistic Diversity within Nations
    • Linguistic Diversity in California
    • Gender Speech Contrasts
    • Stratification and Symbolic Domination
    • African American Vernacular English (AAVE)

Historical Linguistics

    • Language, Culture, and History
    • Language Loss

Anthropology Today: Words of the Year

Summary

Chapter 5 Making a Living

Adaptive Strategies

Foraging

    • Geographic Distribution of Foragers
    • Correlates of Foraging

Adaptive Strategies Based on Food Production

    • Horticulture
    • Agriculture
    • The Cultivation Continuum
    • Agricultural Intensification: People and the Environment
    • Pastoralism

Economic Systems

    • Organization of Production in Nonindustrial Societies
    • Means of Production
    • Alienation in Industrial Economies

Economizing and Maximization

    • Alternative Ends

Distribution and Exchange

    • The Market Principle
    • Redistribution
    • Reciprocity
    • Coexistence of Exchange Principles
    • Potlatching

Anthropology Today: When the Mills Shut Down: An Anthropologist Looks at Deindustrialization

Summary

Chapter 6 Political Systems

What Is “The Political”?

Types and Trends

Bands and Tribes

    • Foraging Bands
    • Tribal Cultivators
    • The Village Head
    • The “Big Man”
    • Pantribal Sodalities
    • Nomadic Politics

Chiefdoms

    • Political and Economic Systems
    • Status Systems
    • The Emergence of Stratification

State Systems

    • Population Control
    • Judiciary
    • Enforcement
    • Fiscal Support

Social Control

    • Hegemony and Resistance
    • Weapons of the Weak
    • Shame and Gossip
    • The Igbo Women’s War

Anthropology Today: The Illegality Industry: A Failed System of Border Control

Summary

Chapter 7 Families, Kinship, and Marriage

How Anthropologists View Families and Kinship

Families

    • Nuclear and Extended Families
    • Industrialism and Family Organization
    • Changes in North American Kinship
    • It’s All Relative
    • The Family among Foragers

Descent

    • Attributes of Descent Groups
    • Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules

Defining Marriage

Exogamy and Incest

Incest and Its Avoidance

Endogamy

Same-Sex Marriage

Arranged Marriages versus Romance Marriages

Marriage: A Group Affair

    • Gifts at Marriage
    • Durable Alliances

Divorce

Plural Marriages

    • Polygyny
    • Polyandry

The Online Marriage Market

Anthropology Today: What Anthropologists Could Teach the Supreme Court about the Definition of Marriage

Summary

Chapter 8 Gender

Sex and Gender

Recurrent Gender Patterns

Gender Roles and Gender Stratification

    • Reduced Gender Stratification: Matrilineal-Matrilocal Societies
    • Matriarchy
    • Increased Gender Stratification: Patrilineal-Patrilocal Societies
    • Patriarchy and Violence

Gender in Industrial Societies

    • Changes in Gendered Work
    • Work and Family: Reality and Stereotypes
    • The Feminization of Poverty
    • Work and Happiness

Beyond Male and Female

Sexual Orientation

Anthropology Today: Gender, Ethnicity, and a Gold Medal for Fiji

Summary

Chapter 9 Religion

What Is Religion?

Expressions of Religion

    • Spiritual Beings
    • Powers and Forces
    • Magic and Religion
    • Uncertainty, Anxiety, Solace
    • Rituals
    • Rites of Passage
    • Totemism

Social Control

Kinds of Religion

Protestant Values and Capitalism

World Religions

Religion and Change

    • Revitalization Movements and Cargo Cults
    • Religious Changes in the United States
    • New and Alternative Religious Movements

Religion and Cultural Globalization

    • Evangelical Protestantism and Pentecostalism
    • Homogenization, Indigenization, or Hybridization?
    • The Spread of Islam
    • Antimodernism and Fundamentalism
    • Religious Radicalization Today

Secular Rituals

Anthropology Today: Great Expectorations

Summary

Chapter 10 Ethnicity and Race

Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity

    • Status and Identity
    • Minority Groups and Stratification

Human Biological Diversity and the Race Concept

    • Races Are Not Biologically Distinct
    • Explaining Skin Color

Race and Ethnicity

The Social Construction of Race

    • Hypodescent: Race in the United States
    • Race in the Census
    • Not Us: Race in Japan
    • Phenotype and Fluidity: Race in Brazil

Ethnic Groups, Nations, and Nationalities

    • Ethnic Diversity by Region
    • Nationalities without Nations

Ethnic Tolerance and Accommodation

    • Assimilation
    • The Plural Society
    • Multiculturalism

Changing Demographics in the United States

    • The Gray and the Brown
    • The Gray Need the Brown
    • The Backlash to Multiculturalism

Ethnic Conflict

    • Sectarian Violence
    • Prejudice and Discrimination
    • Black Lives Matter
    • Anti-ethnic Discrimination

Anthropology Today: Why Are the Greens So White? Race and Ethnicity in Golf

Summary

Chapter 11 Applying Anthropology

What Is Applied Anthropology?

The Role of the Applied Anthropologist

    • Early Applications
    • Academic and Applied Anthropology
    • Applied Anthropology Today

Development Anthropology

    • Equity
    • Negative Equity Impact

Strategies for Innovation

    • Overinnovation
    • Indigenous Models

Anthropology and Education

Urban Anthropology

Medical Anthropology

    • Disease Theory Systems
    • Scientific Medicine versus Western Medicine
    • Industrialization, Globalization, and Health

Anthropology and Business

Can Change Be Bad?

Public and Applied Anthropology

Careers and Anthropology

Anthropology Today: Culturally Appropriate Marketing

Summary

Chapter 12 The World System, Colonialism, and Inequality

The World System

    • World-System Theory
    • The Emergence of the World System

Industrialization

    • Causes of the Industrial Revolution
    • Socioeconomic Changes Associated with the Industrial Revolution
    • Industrial Stratification

The Persistence of Inequality

    • Wealth Distribution in the United States
    • Risky Living on the American Periphery

Colonialism and Imperialism

    • The First Phase of European Colonialism: Spain and Portugal
    • Commercial Expansion and European Imperialism
    • The British Colonial Empire
    • French Colonialism
    • Colonialism and Identity
    • Postcolonial Studies

Development

    • Neoliberalism
    • Neoliberalism and NAFTA’s Economic Refugees

Communism, Socialism, and Postsocialism

    • Communism
    • Postsocialist Transitions

The World System Today

Anthropology Today: Mining Giant Compatible with Sustainability Institute?

Summary

Chapter 13 Anthropology’s Role in a Globalizing World

Globalization and Global Issues

Energy Consumption and Industrial Degradation

Global Climate Change

    • Emissions and Global Warming
    • Climate Change

Environmental Anthropology

    • Global Assaults on Local Autonomy
    • Deforestation
    • Emerging Diseases

Interethnic Contact

    • Cultural Imperialism and Indigenization
    • A Global System of Images
    • A Global Culture of Consumption

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