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Making Sense of the Social WorldMethods of Investigation

Making Sense of the Social WorldMethods of Investigation 6th Edition

By: Daniel F. Chambliss Russell K. Schutt
ISBN-10: 150636411X
/ ISBN-13: 9781506364131
Edition: 6th Edition
Language: English
				
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Chapter 1. Science, Society, and Social Research

    • Learning About the Social World
    • Overgeneralization
    • Selective or Inaccurate Observation
    • Illogical Reasoning
    • Resistance to Change
    • Research That Matters
    • Can Social Scientists See the Social World More Clearly?
    • Social Research in Practice
    • Description: How Often Do Americans “Neighbor”?
    • Exploration: How Do Athletic Teams Build Player Loyalty?
    • Explanation: Does Social Context Influence Adolescent Outcomes?
    • Research in the News | Social Media and Political Polarization?
    • Evaluation: Does More Social Capital Result in More Community Participation?
    • How Well Have We Done Our Research?
    • Careers and Research: Jessica LeBlanc, Research Assistant
    • Measurement Validity
    • Generalizability
    • Causal Validity
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 2. The Process and Problems of Social Research

    • What Is the Question?
    • What Is the Theory?
    • What Is the Strategy?
    • Deductive Research
    • Research in the News | Control and Fear: What Mass Killings and Domestic Violence Have in Common
    • Domestic Violence and the Research Circle
    • Inductive Research
    • Research That Matters
    • An Inductive Study of Response to a Disaster
    • Descriptive Research: A Necessary Step
    • What Is the Design?
    • Cross-Sectional Designs
    • Longitudinal Designs
    • Trend Designs
    • Panel Designs
    • Cohort Designs
    • Units and Levels of Analysis
    • Careers and Research: Kristin M. Curtis, Senior Research Program Coordinator
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 3. Ethics in Research

    • Historical Background
    • Ethical Principles
    • Protecting Research Subjects
    • Avoid Harming Research Participants
    • Obtain Informed Consent
    • Avoid Deception in Research, Except in Limited Circumstances
    • Maintain Privacy and Confidentiality
    • Research That Matters
    • Maintaining Honesty and Openness
    • Achieving Valid Results
    • Research in the News | Some Social Scientists Are Tired of Asking for Permission
    • Encouraging Appropriate Application
    • Careers and Research: Manan Nayak, Senior Project Director
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 4. Conceptualization and Measurement

    • What Do We Have in Mind?
    • Conceptualization
    • Research That Matters
    • Variables and Constants
    • Research in the News | Are Teenagers Replacing Drugs With Smartphones?
    • How Will We Know When We’ve Found It?
    • Using Available Data
    • Content Analysis
    • Constructing Questions
    • Single Questions
    • Indexes and Scales
    • Making Observations
    • Combining Measurement Operations
    • How Much Information Do We Really Have?
    • Nominal Level of Measurement
    • Ordinal Level of Measurement
    • Interval Level of Measurement
    • Ratio Level of Measurement
    • Comparison of Levels of Measurement
    • Careers and Research: Dana Hunt, PhD, Principal Scientist
    • Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
    • Measurement Validity
    • Face Validity
    • Criterion Validity
    • Construct Validity
    • Reliability
    • Can We Achieve Both Reliability and Validity?
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 5. Sampling and Generalizability

    • How Do We Prepare to Sample?
    • Define Sample Components and the Population
    • Evaluate Generalizability
    • Assess the Diversity of the Population
    • Consider a Census
    • What Sampling Method Should We Use?
    • Research That Matters
    • Probability Sampling Methods
    • Simple Random Sampling
    • Research in the News | What Are Best Practices for Sampling Vulnerable Populations?
    • Systematic Random Sampling
    • Cluster Sampling
    • Stratified Random Sampling
    • Nonprobability Sampling Methods
    • Availability Sampling
    • Careers and Research: Ross Koppel, PhD, Sociologist
    • Quota Sampling
    • Purposive Sampling
    • Snowball Sampling
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 6. Causation and Experimental Design

    • Causal Explanation
    • What Causes What?
    • Research in the News | Police and Black Drivers
    • Association
    • Research That Matters
    • Time Order
    • Nonspuriousness
    • Mechanism
    • Context
    • Why Experiment?
    • Careers and Research: Sruthi Chandrasekaran, Senior Research Associate
    • What If a True Experiment Isn’t Possible?
    • Nonequivalent Control Group Designs
    • Before-and-After Designs
    • Ex Post Facto Control Group Designs
    • What Are the Threats to Validity?
    • Threats to Internal (Causal) Validity
    • Noncomparable Groups
    • Endogenous Change
    • History
    • Contamination
    • Treatment Misidentification
    • Threats to Generalizability
    • Sample Generalizability
    • Cross-Population Generalizability
    • Interaction of Testing and Treatment
    • How Do Experimenters Protect Their Subjects?
    • Deception
    • Selective Distribution of Benefits
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 7. Survey Research

    • Why Is Survey Research So Popular?
    • How Should We Write Survey Questions?
    • Research in the News | Social Interaction Critical for Mental and Physical Health
    • Be Clear; Avoid Confusing Phrasing
    • Minimize Bias
    • Allow for Disagreement
    • Don’t Ask Questions They Can’t Answer
    • Allow for Uncertainty
    • Make Response Categories Exhaustive and Mutually Exclusive
    • How Should Questionnaires Be Designed?
    • Build on Existing Instruments
    • Refine and Test Questions
    • Maintain Consistent Focus
    • Order the Questions
    • Make the Questionnaire Attractive
    • Careers and Research: Grant A. Bacon, Research Associate
    • What Are the Alternatives for Administering Surveys?
    • Mailed, Self-Administered Surveys
    • Group-Administered Surveys
    • Telephone Surveys
    • Reaching Sampling Units
    • In-Person Interviews
    • Maximizing Response to Interviews
    • Research That Matters
    • Electronic Surveys
    • A Comparison of Survey Designs
    • Ethical Issues in Survey Research
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 8. Elementary Quantitative Data Analysis

    • Why Do Statistics?
    • Case Study: The Likelihood of Voting
    • How to Prepare Data for Analysis
    • What Are the Options for Displaying Distributions?
    • Graphs
    • Frequency Distributions
    • What Are the Options for Summarizing Distributions?
    • Measures of Central Tendency
    • Research in the News | Why Key State Polls Were Wrong About Trump
    • Mode
    • Median
    • Mean
    • Median or Mean?
    • Measures of Variation
    • Research That Matters
    • Range
    • Interquartile Range
    • Variance
    • Standard Deviation
    • How Can We Tell Whether Two Variables Are Related?
    • Reading the Table
    • Controlling for a Third Variable
    • Secondary Data Analysis
    • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
    • U.S. Census Bureau
    • Careers and Research: Claire Wulf Winiarek, MA, Director of Collaborative Policy Engagement
    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
    • Human Relations Area Files
    • Big Data
    • Big Data, Big Ethics Issues
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 9. Qualitative Methods: Observing, Participating, Listening

    • What Are Qualitative Methods?
    • Case Study: Beyond Caring
    • Ethnography
    • Careers and Research: Dzenan Berberovic, Director of Development
    • Netnography
    • Ethnomethodology
    • Research in the News | Family Life Wrecked After Hurricane Harvey in Houston, 2017
    • How Does Participant Observation Become a Research Method?
    • Choosing a Role
    • Complete Observation
    • Mixed Participation or Observation
    • Complete Participation
    • Entering the Field
    • Developing and Maintaining Relationships
    • Sampling People and Events
    • Research That Matters
    • Taking Notes
    • Analyzing Field Notes
    • Managing the Personal Dimensions
    • Systematic Observation
    • How Do You Conduct Intensive Interviews?
    • Establishing and Maintaining a Partnership
    • Asking Questions and Recording Answers
    • Interviewing Online
    • How Do You Run Focus Groups?
    • Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 10. Qualitative Data Analysis

    • What Is Distinctive About Qualitative Data Analysis?
    • Qualitative Data Analysis as an Art
    • Qualitative Compared With Quantitative Data Analysis
    • What Techniques Do Qualitative Data Analysts Use?
    • Documentation
    • Conceptualization, Coding, and Categorizing
    • Examining Relationships and Displaying Data
    • Authenticating Conclusions
    • Research That Matters
    • Reflexivity
    • What Are Some Alternatives in Qualitative Data Analysis?
    • Grounded Theory
    • Narrative Analysis
    • Conversation Analysis
    • Careers and Research: Laurel Person Mecca, MA, Assistant Director and Senior Research Specialist, Qualitative Data Analysis Program
    • Visual Sociology
    • Why Are Mixed Methods Helpful?
    • Research in the News | How to Understand Solitary Confinement
    • How Can Computers Assist Qualitative Data Analysis?
    • What Ethical Issues Arise in Doing Qualitative Data Analysis?
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 11. Unobtrusive Measures

    • Creative Sources
    • Physical Traces
    • Archives
    • Observation
    • Contrived Observation
    • Content Analysis
    • Identify a Population of Documents or Other Textual Sources
    • Determine the Units of Analysis
    • Design Coding Procedures for the Variables to Be Measured
    • Select a Sample of Units From the Population
    • Code Documents and Apply Appropriate Statistical Analyses
    • Historical Methods
    • Event-Structure Analysis
    • Oral History
    • Comparative Methods
    • Cross-Sectional Comparative Research
    • Careers and Research: Kurt Taylor Gaubatz, PhD, Independent Scholar
    • Research in the News | Britain Cracking Down on Gender Stereotypes in Ads
    • Longitudinal Comparative Research
    • Research That Matters
    • Cautions for Comparative Analysis
    • Ethical Issues in Unobtrusive Methods
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 12. Evaluation Research

    • What Is the History of Evaluation Research?
    • What Is Evaluation Research?
    • Careers and Research: Mary Anne Casey, PhD, Consultant
    • What Are the Alternatives in Evaluation Designs?
    • Black Box or Program Theory
    • Researcher or Stakeholder Orientation
    • Quantitative or Qualitative Methods
    • Simple or Complex Outcomes
    • What Can an Evaluation Study Focus On?
    • Needs Assessment
    • Research in the News | No-Cost Talk Therapy?
    • Evaluability Assessment
    • Process Evaluation
    • Research That Matters
    • Impact Analysis
    • Efficiency Analysis
    • Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises

Chapter 13. Reviewing, Proposing, and Reporting Research

    • Comparing Research Designs
    • Reviewing Research
    • Case Study: “Night as Frontier”
    • The Research Design
    • Analysis of the Design
    • An Overall Assessment
    • Case Study: When Does Arrest Matter?
    • Summarize Prior Research
    • Critique Prior Research
    • Present Pertinent Conclusions
    • Proposing New Research
    • Research That Matters
    • Case Study: Community Health Workers and Cancer Clinical Trials
    • Reporting Research
    • Careers and Research: Ruth Westby, MPH, Research Associate, IFC International
    • Research in the News | Do Preschool Teachers Need to Be College Graduates?
    • Writing and Organizing
    • Plagiarism
    • Conclusion
    • Key Terms
    • Highlights
    • Student Study Site
    • Exercises


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