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Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry 12th Edition

By: Frederick A. Bettelheim William H. Brown Mary K. Campbell
ISBN-10: 0357391594
/ ISBN-13: 9780357119303
Edition: 12th Edition
Language: English
				
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Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and Measurement

    • 1.1 Chemistry and the Study of Matter
    • 1.2 The Scientific Method
    • 1.3 Reporting Numbers in Science
    • 1.4 Making Measurements
    • 1.5 Unit Conversions
    • 1.6 States of Matter
    • 1.7 Density and Specific Gravity
    • 1.8 Describing the Various Forms of Energy
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 2: Atoms

    • 2.1 Composition of Matter
    • 2.2 Classifying Matter
    • 2.3 Postulates of Dalton’s Atomic Theory
    • 2.4 Composition of Atoms
    • 2.5 The Periodic Table
    • 2.6 Arrangement of Electrons in an Atom
    • 2.7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
    • 2.8 Periodic Properties
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 3: Chemical Bonds

    • 3.1 The Octet Rule
    • 3.2 Naming Anions and Cations
    • 3.3 The Two Major Types of Chemical Bonds
    • 3.4 An Ionic Bond
    • 3.5 Naming Ionic Compounds
    • 3.6 A Covalent Bond
    • 3.7 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds
    • 3.8 Resonance
    • 3.9 Predicting Bond Angles in Covalent Molecules
    • 3.10 Determining If a Molecule Is Polar
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions and Energy Calculations

    • 4.1 The Chemical Reaction
    • 4.2 Balancing Chemical Equations
    • 4.3 Predicting Whether Ions in Aqueous Solution Will React with Each Other
    • 4.4 Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
    • 4.5 Formula Weights and Molecular Weights
    • 4.6 The Mole and Calculating Mass Relationships
    • 4.7 Calculating Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions
    • 4.8 Describing Heat and the Ways in Which It Is Transferred
    • 4.9 Heat of Reaction
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 5: Gases, Liquids, and Solids

    • 5.1 Introduction to the Three States of Matter
    • 5.2 Gas Pressure and Measurements
    • 5.3 The Behavior of Gases
    • 5.4 Avogadro’s Law and the Ideal Gas Law
    • 5.5 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
    • 5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory
    • 5.7 Types of Intermolecular Attractive Forces
    • 5.8 The Behavior of Liquids at the Molecular Level
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 6: Solutions and Colloids

    • 6.1 Introduction to Mixtures
    • 6.2 The Most Common Types of Solutions
    • 6.3 The Distinguishing Characteristics of Solutions
    • 6.4 Factors Affecting Solubility
    • 6.5 The Most Common Units for Concentration
    • 6.6 Water as a Good Solvent
    • 6.7 Colloids
    • 6.8 Colligative Properties
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 7: Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium

    • 7.1 Measuring Reaction Rates
    • 7.2 Molecular Collisions and Reactions
    • 7.3 Activation Energy and Reaction Rate
    • 7.4 Rate of a Chemical Reaction
    • 7.5 Equilibrium
    • 7.6 The Equilibrium Constant
    • 7.7 Le Chatelier’s Principle
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 8: Acids and Bases

    • 8.1 Acids and Bases
    • 8.2 Defining the Strength of Acids and Bases
    • 8.3 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
    • 8.4 The Position of Equilibriumin an Acid-Base Reaction
    • 8.5 Acid Ionization Constants
    • 8.6 Properties of Acids and Bases
    • 8.7 Acidic and Basic Properties of Pure Water
    • 8.8 pH and pOH
    • 8.9 Using Titrations to Calculate Concentration
    • 8.10 Buffers
    • 8.11 Calculating the pH of a Buffer
    • 8.12 TRIS, HEPES, and Other Biochemical Buffers
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 9: Nuclear Chemistry

    • 9.1 Discovery of Radioactivity
    • 9.2 Defining Radioactivity
    • 9.3 Nucleus and Radioactivity
    • 9.4 Nuclear Half-Life
    • 9.5 Detecting and Measuring Nuclear Radiation
    • 9.6 Radiation Dosimetry and Human Health
    • 9.7 Nuclear Medicine
    • 9.8 Nuclear Fusion
    • 9.9 Nuclear Fission and Atomic Energy
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 10: Organic Chemistry

    • 10.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
    • 10.2 Obtaining Organic Compounds
    • 10.3 Writing Structural Formulas of Organic Compounds
    • 10.4 Functional Groups
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 11: Alkanes

    • 11.1 Introduction to Alkanes
    • 11.2 Writing Structural Formulas of Alkanes
    • 11.3 Constitutional Isomers
    • 11.4 Naming Alkanes
    • 11.5 Obtaining Alkanes
    • 11.6 Cycloalkanes
    • 11.7 Shapes of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
    • 11.8 Cis-Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
    • 11.9 Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
    • 11.10 Characteristic Reactions of Alkanes
    • 11.11 Some Important Haloalkanes
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 12: Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds

    • 12.1 Introduction to Alkenes and Alkynes
    • 12.2 Structures of Alkenes and Alkynes
    • 12.3 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
    • 12.4 Physical Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes
    • 12.5 Characteristic Reactions of Alkenes
    • 12.6 Important Polymerization Reactions of Ethylene and Substituted Ethylenes
    • 12.7 Structure of Benzene
    • 12.8 Naming Aromatic Compounds
    • 12.9 Reactions of Benzene and Its Derivatives
    • 12.10 Phenols
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 13: Alcohols, Ethers, and Thiols

    • 13.1 Structures, Names, and Physical Properties of Alcohols
    • 13.2 Characteristic Reactions of Alcohols
    • 13.3 Structures, Names, and Physical Properties of Ethers
    • 13.4 Structures, Names, and Physical Properties of Thiols
    • 13.5 Commercially Important Alcohols
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 14: Chirality: The Handedness of Molecules

    • 14.1 Enantiomerism
    • 14.2 Specifying the Configuration of a Stereocenter
    • 14.3 Possible Stereoisomers for Molecules with Two or More Stereocenters
    • 14.4 Optical Activity and Chirality in the Laboratory
    • 14.5 Significance of Chirality in the Biological World
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 15: Amines

    • 15.1 Structure of Amines
    • 15.2 Names of Amines
    • 15.3 Physical Properties of Amines
    • 15.4 Basicity of Amines
    • 15.5 Characteristic Reactions of Amines
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 16: Aldehydes and Ketones

    • 16.1 Aldehydes and Ketones
    • 16.2 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
    • 16.3 Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
    • 16.4 Characteristic Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
    • 16.5 Keto-Enol Tautomerism
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 17: Carboxylic Acids

    • 17.1 Carboxylic Acids
    • 17.2 Names of Carboxylic Acids
    • 17.3 Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
    • 17.4 Soaps and Detergents
    • 17.5 Characteristic Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 18: Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides

    • 18.1 Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides
    • 18.2 Preparation of Esters
    • 18.3 Preparation of Amides
    • 18.4 Characteristic Reactions of Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides
    • 18.5 Phosphoric Anhydrides and Phosphoric Esters
    • 18.6 Step-Growth Polymerization
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 19: Carbohydrates

    • 19.1 Monosaccharides: The Simplest Carbohydrates
    • 19.2 Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides
    • 19.3 Characteristic Reactions of Monosaccharides
    • 19.4 Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides
    • 19.5 Polysaccharides
    • 19.6 Acidic Polysaccharides
    • Chapter Summary
    • Summary of Key Reactions
    • Problems

Chapter 20: Lipids

    • 20.1 Importance of Lipids
    • 20.2 Fatty Acids
    • 20.3 Triglyceride Structure
    • 20.4 Properties of Triglycerides
    • 20.5 Structures of Complex Lipids
    • 20.6 Lipids and Membrane Structure
    • 20.7 Glycerophospholipids
    • 20.8 Sphingolipids
    • 20.9 Glycolipids
    • 20.10 Steroids
    • 20.11 Physiological Roles of Steroid Hormones
    • 20.12 Bile Salts
    • 20.13 Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes
    • 20.14 Molecular Transport across Membranes
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 21: Proteins

    • 21.1 The Many Functions of Proteins
    • 21.2 Amino Acids
    • 21.3 Amino Acids Exist as Zwitterions
    • 21.4 Amino Acids Combine to Form Proteins
    • 21.5 Amino Acid Characteristics
    • 21.6 Uncommon Amino Acids
    • 21.7 Protein Properties
    • 21.8 Protein Primary Structure
    • 21.9 Protein Secondary Structure
    • 21.10 Protein Tertiary Structure
    • 21.11 Protein Quaternary Structure
    • 21.12 Protein Denaturation
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 22: Enzymes

    • 22.1 Enzymes are Biological Catalysts
    • 22.2 Enzyme Nomenclature
    • 22.3 Enzyme Activity
    • 22.4 Enzyme Mechanisms
    • 22.5 Enzyme Regulation
    • 22.6 Enzymes in Medicine
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 23: Chemical Communications: Neurotransmitters and Hormones

    • 23.1 Cells Communicate in Many Ways
    • 23.2 Neurotransmitters and Hormones
    • 23.3 Cholinergic Messengers
    • 23.4 Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
    • 23.5 Adrenergic Messengers
    • 23.6 Peptides in Chemical Communications
    • 23.7 Steroid Hormone Messengers
    • 23.8 Drugs Affect Chemical Communications
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 24: Nucleotides, Nucleic Acids, and Heredity

    • 24.1 DNA and RNA are the Molecules of Heredity
    • 24.2 Nucleic Acids
    • 24.3 The Structure of DNA and RNA
    • 24.4 RNA Types
    • 24.5 Genes
    • 24.6 Medical Applications of RNA
    • 24.7 DNA Replication
    • 24.8 DNA Amplification
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 25: Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis

    • 25.1 DNA Leads to RNA and Protein
    • 25.2 Transcription of DNA
    • 25.3 Translation of RNA
    • 25.4 The Genetic Code
    • 25.5 Protein Synthesis
    • 25.6 Gene Regulation
    • 25.7 DNA Mutations
    • 25.8 DNA Manipulation
    • 25.9 Gene Therapy
    • 25.10 Epigenetics
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 26: Bioenergetics: How the Body Converts Food to Energy

    • 26.1 The Nature of Metabolism
    • 26.2 Mitochondria and Their Role in Metabolism
    • 26.3 The Principal Compounds of Catabolic Pathways
    • 26.4 The Citric Acid Cycle and in Metabolism
    • 26.5 Electron and H+ Transport
    • 26.6 The Chemiosmotic Pump and ATP Production
    • 26.7 Energy Yield from Aerobic Metabolism
    • 26.8 Conversion of Chemical Energy to Other Forms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 27: Specific Catabolic Pathways: Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism

    • 27.1 The General Outline of Catabolic Pathway
    • 27.2 The Reactions of Glycolysis
    • 27.3 The Energy Yield from Glucose Catabolism
    • 27.4 Glycerol Catabolism
    • 27.5 B-Oxidation of Fatty Acids
    • 27.6 The Energy Yield from Stearic Acid Catabolism
    • 27.7 Ketone Bodies
    • 27.8 Nitrogen Processing in Amino Acid Catabolism
    • 27.9 Carbon Skeleton Processing in Amino Acid Catabolsim
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 28: Biosynthetic Pathways

    • 28.1 The General Outline of Biosynthetic Pathways
    • 28.2 Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates
    • 28.3 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
    • 28.4 Biosynthesis of Membrane Lipids
    • 28.5 Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 29: Nutrition

    • 29.1 Nutritional Guidelines
    • 29.2 Counting Calories
    • 29.3 Carbohydrate Digestion
    • 29.4 Fat Digestion
    • 29.5 Protein Digestion
    • 29.6 The Importance of Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Chapter 30: Immunochemistry

    • 30.1 The Body’s Defense against Invasion
    • 30.2 Organs and Cells of the Immune System
    • 30.3 Antigens Stimulate the Immune System
    • 30.4 Immunoglobulins
    • 30.5 T Cells and T-Cell Receptors
    • 30.6 Immunization
    • 30.7 Distinguishing “Self” from “Nonself”
    • 30.8 The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS
    • Chapter Summary
    • Problems

Appendix I: Exponential Notation

Appendix II: Significant Figures

Answers

Glossary

Index

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