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General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 4th Edition

By: Laura D. Frost S. Todd Deal
ISBN-10: 0134988698
/ ISBN-13: 9780135169681
Edition: 4th Edition
Language: English
				
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An integrated and applied approach to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

Contents

Preface

    • To the Student
    • New to This Edition
    • To the Instructor
    • Chapter Organization and Revision
    • Accuracy Reviewer
    • Reviewers
    • Resources in Print and Online

1 Chemistry Basics—Matter and Measurement

    • Chapter Outline
    • 1.1 Classifying Matter: Pure Substance or Mixture
    • Pure Substances
    • Mixtures
    • Practice Problems
    • 1.2 Elements, Compounds, and the Periodic Table
    • Compounds
    • Practice Problems
    • 1.3 How Matter Changes
    • Physical Change
    • Chemical Reaction
    • Chemical Equations
    • Balancing Chemical Equations
    • Practice Problems
    • 1.4 Math Counts
    • Units, Prefixes, and Conversion Factors
    • Significant Figures
    • Calculating Numbers and Rounding
    • Scientific Notation
    • Percent
    • Practice Problems
    • 1.5 Matter: The “Stuff” of Chemistry
    • Mass
    • Volume
    • Density
    • Specific Gravity
    • Temperature
    • Energy
    • Heat and Specific Heat
    • States of Matter
    • Practice Problems
    • 1.6 Measuring Matter
    • Accuracy and Precision
    • Measurement in Health: Units and Dosing
    • Comparing Metric and U.S. Customary Systems
    • Drop Units
    • Percents in Health
    • Percent Active Ingredient
    • Percent of an Adult Dose
    • Percent in Nutrition Labeling
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 1 Chapter Review
    • Important Equations
    • Percent
    • Temperature Conversions
    • Density
    • Specific Gravity
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems

2 Atoms and Radioactivity

    • Chapter Outline
    • 2.1 Atoms and Their Components
    • Subatomic Particles
    • Structure of an Atom
    • Practice Problems
    • 2.2 Atomic Number and Mass Number
    • Atomic Number
    • Mass Number
    • Practice Problems
    • 2.3 Isotopes and Atomic Mass
    • Atomic Mass
    • Practice Problems
    • 2.4 Radioactivity and Radioisotopes
    • Forms of Radiation
    • Radiation Sickness
    • Practice Problems
    • 2.5 Nuclear Equations and Radioactive Decay
    • Alpha Decay
    • Beta Decay and Positron Emission
    • Gamma Decay
    • Producing Radioactive Isotopes
    • Practice Problems
    • 2.6 Radiation Units and Half-Lives
    • Radioactivity Units
    • Half-Life
    • Practice Problems
    • 2.7 Medical Applications for Radioisotopes
    • Positron Emission Tomography
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 2 Chapter Review
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems

3 Compounds—How Elements Combine

    • Chapter Outline
    • 3.1 Electron Arrangements and the Octet Rule
    • The Octet Rule
    • Practice Problems
    • 3.2 In Search of an Octet, Part 1: Ion Formation
    • Trends in Ion Formation
    • Naming Ions
    • Practice Problems
    • 3.3 Ionic Compounds—Electron Give and Take
    • Formulas of Ionic Compounds
    • Naming Ionic Compounds
    • Practice Problems
    • 3.4 In Search of an Octet, Part 2: Covalent Bond Formation
    • Covalent Bond Formation
    • Formulas and Lewis Structures of Covalent Compounds
    • Naming Covalent Compounds
    • Practice Problems
    • 3.5 The Mole: Counting Atoms and Compounds
    • Avogadro’s Number
    • Molar Mass and Formula Weight
    • A Unit from Biochemistry: The Dalton
    • Practice Problems
    • 3.6 Getting Covalent Compounds into Shape
    • Determining the Shape of a Molecule
    • Nonbonding Electrons and Their Effect on Molecular Shape
    • Molecular Shape of Larger Molecules
    • Practice Problems
    • 3.7 Electronegativity and Molecular Polarity
    • Electronegativity
    • Molecular Polarity
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 3 Chapter Review
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems

4 Introduction to Organic Compounds

    • Chapter Outline
    • 4.1 Representing the Structures of Organic Compounds
    • Condensed Structural Formulas
    • Skeletal Structures
    • Practice Problems
    • 4.2 Alkanes: The Simplest Organic Compounds
    • Straight-Chain Alkanes
    • Cycloalkanes
    • Alkanes Are Nonpolar Compounds
    • Practice Problems
    • 4.3 Families of Organic Compounds—Functional Groups
    • Unsaturated Hydrocarbons—Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatics
    • Alkenes
    • Alkynes
    • Aromatics
    • Lipids Are Hydrocarbons—Fatty Acids
    • Practice Problems
    • 4.4 Nomenclature of Simple Alkanes
    • Branched-Chain Alkanes
    • Haloalkanes
    • Cycloalkanes
    • Practice Problems
    • 4.5 Isomerism in Organic Compounds
    • Structural Isomers and Conformational Isomers
    • Cis–Trans Stereoisomers in Cycloalkanes and Alkenes
    • Unsaturated Fatty Acids Contain Cis Alkenes
    • Stereoisomers—Chiral Molecules and Enantiomers
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 4 Chapter Review
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems

5 Chemical Reactions

    • Chapter Outline
    • 5.1 Thermodynamics
    • Heat of Reaction
    • Randomness
    • Free Energy and ΔG
    • Activation Energy
    • Energy Content in Food
    • Practice Problems
    • 5.2 Chemical Reactions: Kinetics
    • Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    • Temperature
    • Amount of Reactant
    • Presence of a Catalyst
    • Enzymes Are Biological Catalysts
    • Practice Problems
    • 5.3 Overview of Chemical Reactions
    • Types of Chemical Reactions
    • Reversible and Irreversible Reactions
    • Combustion
    • Alkanes
    • Distinguishing Chemical Reactions
    • Practice Problems
    • 5.4 Oxidation and Reduction
    • Inorganic Oxidation and Reduction
    • Organic Oxidation and Reduction
    • Oxidation in Cells
    • Practice Problems
    • 5.5 Organic Reactions: Condensation and Hydrolysis
    • Hydrolyzable and Nonhydrolyzable Lipids
    • Practice Problems
    • 5.6 Organic Addition Reactions to Alkenes
    • Hydration
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 5 Chapter Review
    • Summary of Reactions
    • Types of Chemical Reactions
    • Combustion
    • Condensation/Hydrolysis
    • Addition Reactions to Alkenes
    • Oxidation–Reduction
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems

6 Carbohydrates— Life’s Sweet Molecules

    • Chapter Outline
    • 6.1 Classes of Carbohydrates
    • Practice Problems
    • 6.2 Functional Groups in Monosaccharides
    • Alcohol
    • Aldehyde
    • Ketone
    • Practice Problems
    • 6.3 Stereochemistry in Monosaccharides
    • Representing Stereoisomers—The Fischer Projection
    • Stereoisomers That Are Not Enantiomers
    • Important Monosaccharides
    • Practice Problems
    • 6.4 Reactions of Monosaccharides
    • Ring Formation—The Truth About Monosaccharide Structure
    • Oxidation–Reduction and Reducing Sugars
    • Practice Problems
    • 6.5 Disaccharides
    • Condensation and Hydrolysis—Forming and Breaking Glycosidic Bonds
    • Naming Glycosidic Bonds
    • Three Important Disaccharides—Maltose, Lactose, and Sucrose
    • Maltose
    • Lactose
    • Sucrose
    • Practice Problems
    • 6.6 Polysaccharides
    • Storage Polysaccharides
    • Amylose and Amylopectin—Starch
    • Glycogen
    • Structural Polysaccharides
    • Cellulose
    • Chitin
    • Practice Problems
    • 6.7 Carbohydrates and Blood
    • ABO Blood Types
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 6 Chapter Review
    • Summary of Reactions
    • Ring Formation (d-Glucose)
    • Oxidation of Monosaccharides (d-Glucose)
    • Reduction of Monosaccharides (d-Glucose)
    • Glycosidic Bond Formation (d-Glucose)
    • Disaccharide Formation Through Condensation
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems

7 States of Matter and Their Attractive Forces: Gas Laws, Solubility, and Applications to the Cell Membrane

    • Chapter Outline
    • 7.1 Gases and Gas Laws
    • Gases and Pressure
    • Gas Behavior
    • Pressure and Volume—Boyle’s Law
    • Temperature and Volume—Charles’s Law
    • Temperature and Pressure—Gay-Lussac’s Law
    • Temperature, Pressure, and Volume—The Combined Gas Law
    • Using the Ideal Gas Law to Recall Other Gas Laws
    • Practice Problems
    • 7.2 Liquids and Solids: Predicting Properties Through Attractive Forces
    • Changes of State and Attractive Forces
    • Vapor Pressure and Boiling Points
    • Types of Attractive Forces
    • London Forces
    • Dipole–Dipole Attraction
    • Hydrogen Bonding
    • Ion–Dipole Attraction
    • Ionic Attraction
    • Predicting Vapor Pressure and Boiling Points for Alkanes
    • Melting Points
    • Solution
    • Practice Problems
    • 7.3 Attractive Forces and Solubility
    • The Golden Rule of Solubility
    • Predicting Solubility
    • Nonpolar Compounds
    • Polar Compounds
    • Ionic Compounds
    • Amphipathic Compounds
    • Practice Problems
    • 7.4 Dietary Lipids
    • Fats Are Solids; Oils Are Liquids
    • Practice Problems
    • 7.5 Attractive Forces and the Cell Membrane
    • A Look at Phospholipids
    • The Cell Membrane Is a Bilayer
    • Steroids in Membranes: Cholesterol
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 7 Chapter Review
    • Important Equations
    • Boyle’s Law
    • Charles’s Law
    • Gay-Lussac’s Law
    • The Combined Gas Law
    • The Ideal Gas Law
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems

8 Solution Chemistry— Sugar and Water Do Mix

    • Chapter Outline
    • 8.1 Solutions Are Mixtures
    • States of Solutes and Solvents
    • The Unique Behavior of Water
    • Colloids and Suspensions
    • Practice Problems
    • 8.2 Formation of Solutions
    • Factors Affecting Solubility and Saturated Solutions
    • Solubility and Temperature
    • Solubility and Pressure—Henry’s Law
    • Practice Problems
    • 8.3 Chemical Equations for Solution Formation
    • Strong Electrolytes
    • Nonelectrolytes
    • Weak Electrolytes
    • Ionic Solutions and Equivalents
    • Practice Problems
    • 8.4 Concentration
    • Millimoles per Liter (mmol/L) and Molarity (M)
    • Percent (%) Concentration
    • Percent Mass/Mass, % (m/m)
    • Percent Volume/Volume, % (v/v)
    • Percent Mass/Volume, % (m/v)
    • Relationship to Other Common Units
    • Parts per Million (ppm) and Parts per Billion (ppb)
    • Practice Problems
    • 8.5 Dilution
    • Dilution Factors and Concentrated Stock Solutions
    • Practice Problems
    • 8.6 Osmosis and Diffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Diffusion and Dialysis
    • Practice Problems
    • 8.7 Transport Across Cell Membranes
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 8 Chapter Review
    • Important Equations
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems

9 Acids, Bases, and Buffers in the Body

    • Chapter Outline
    • 9.1 Acids and Bases—Definitions
    • Acids
    • Bases
    • Acids and Bases Are Both Present in Aqueous Solution
    • Practice Problems
    • 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases
    • Naming Acids
    • Neutralization
    • Practice Problems
    • 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium
    • The Equilibrium Constant, K
    • Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium— Le Châtelier’s Principle
    • Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium
    • Practice Problems
    • 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases
    • The Equilibrium Constant Ka
    • Conjugate Acids and Bases
    • Practice Problems
    • 9.5 pH and the pH Scale
    • The Autoionization of Water, Kw
    • [H3O+], [OH−], and pH
    • Measuring pH
    • Calculating pH
    • Calculating [H3O+]
    • Practice Problems
    • 9.6 pKa
    • Practice Problems
    • 9.7 The Relationship Between pH, pKa, Drug Solubility, and Diffusion
    • The Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    • Practice Problems
    • 9.8 Buffers and Blood: The Bicarbonate Buffer System
    • Maintaining Physiological pH with Bicarbonate Buffer: Homeostasis
    • Changes in Ventilation Rate
    • Changes in Metabolic Acid Production
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 9 Chapter Review
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems

10 Proteins— Workers of the Cell

    • Chapter Outline
    • 10.1 Amino Acids—The Building Blocks
    • Classification of Amino Acids
    • Abbreviations for Amino Acids
    • Amino Acids as Weak Acids
    • Practice Problems
    • 10.2 Protein Formation
    • Biological Condensation Reactions
    • Amides and the Peptide Bond
    • Practice Problems
    • 10.3 The Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins
    • Primary Structure
    • Secondary Structure
    • Tertiary Structure
    • Quaternary Structure
    • Practice Problems
    • 10.4 Denaturation of Proteins
    • Practice Problems
    • 10.5 Protein Functions
    • Proteins as Messengers, Receptors, and Transporters
    • Hemoglobin—Your Body’s Oxygen Transporter
    • Antibodies—Your Body’s Defense Protein
    • Practice Problems
    • 10.6 Enzymes—Life’s Catalysts
    • The Active Site
    • Enzyme–Substrate Models
    • Rates of Reaction
    • Proximity
    • Orientation
    • Bond Energy
    • Practice Problems
    • 10.7 Factors That Affect Enzyme Activity
    • Substrate Concentration
    • pH
    • Temperature
    • Inhibitors
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 10 Chapter Review
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems

11 Nucleic Acids—Big Molecules with a Big Role

    • Chapter Outline
    • 11.1 Components of Nucleic Acids
    • Nitrogenous Bases
    • Ribose and Deoxyribose
    • Condensation of the Components
    • Naming Nucleotides
    • Practice Problems
    • 11.2 Nucleic Acid Formation
    • Primary Structure: Nucleic Acid Sequence
    • Practice Problems
    • 11.3 DNA
    • Secondary Structure: Complementary Base Pairing
    • Tertiary Structure: Chromosomes
    • Practice Problems
    • 11.4 RNA and Protein Synthesis
    • RNA Types and Where They Fit In
    • Messenger RNA and Transcription
    • Ribosomal RNA and the Ribosome
    • Transfer RNA and Translation
    • Practice Problems
    • 11.5 Putting It Together: The Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis
    • The Genetic Code
    • Protein Synthesis
    • Transcription
    • tRNA Activation
    • Translation
    • Termination
    • Practice Problems
    • 11.6 Genetic Mutations
    • Practice Problems
    • 11.7 Viruses
    • Practice Problems
    • 11.8 Recombinant DNA Technology
    • Recombining DNA to Produce Proteins
    • CRISPR—Twenty-First-Century Gene Editor
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 11 Chapter Review
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • CYIQNCPLG
    • SYSMQHFRWGKPV
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems

12 Food as Fuel—An Overview of Metabolism

    • Chapter Outline
    • 12.1 How Metabolism Works
    • Metabolic Pathways in the Animal Cell
    • Practice Problems
    • 12.2 Metabolically Relevant Nucleotides
    • ATP/ADP
    • NADH/NAD+ and FADH2/FAD
    • Acetyl Coenzyme A and Coenzyme A
    • Practice Problems
    • 12.3 Digestion—From Food Molecules to Hydrolysis Products
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Proteins
    • Practice Problems
    • 12.4 Glycolysis—From Hydrolysis Products to Common Metabolites
    • The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis
    • Regulation of Glycolysis
    • The Fates of Pyruvate
    • Aerobic Conditions
    • Anaerobic Conditions
    • Practice Problems
    • 12.5 The Citric Acid Cycle—Central Processing
    • Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle
    • Citric Acid Cycle: Summary
    • Practice Problems
    • 12.6 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Electron Transport
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Practice Problems
    • 12.7 ATP Production
    • Counting ATP from One Glucose
    • Glycolysis
    • Oxidation of Pyruvate
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Total ATP from Glucose Oxidation
    • Practice Problems
    • 12.8 Other Fuel Choices
    • Energy from Fatty Acids
    • The Beta Oxidation Cycle
    • Cycle Repeats and ATP Production
    • Energy from Amino Acids
    • Putting It Together: Linking the Pathways
    • Practice Problems
    • Chapter 12 Chapter Review
    • Summary of Reactions
    • Hydrolysis of ATP
    • Formation of ATP
    • Digestion of Proteins
    • Hydrolysis of Disaccharides
    • Digestion of Triglycerides
    • Glycolysis
    • Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
    • Reduction of Pyruvate to Lactate
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Complete Oxidation of Glucose
    • β Oxidation of Fatty Acid
    • Additional Problems
    • Challenge Problems
    • Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
    • Practice Problems
    • Additional Problems

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