Gangs in America's Communities,3th edition

Gangs in America’s Communities 3th edition

By: James C. Howell, Elizabeth A. Griffiths
About this Book
ISBN-10: 1544300220
/ ISBN-13: 9781544300221
Edition: 3th edition
Format: MS Word /or PDF
Published By: SAGE Publications, Inc

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Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the authors
Chapter 1: History of Gangs in the United States
Street Gang Emergence in the Northeast
Street Gang Emergence in the Midwest
Street Gang Emergence in the West Region
Street Gang Emergence in the South
Another Wave of Immigrant Groups
The Institutionalization of Street Gangs
Chapter 2: Myths and Realities of Youth Gangs
Consideration of Key Myths About Gangs
Chapter 3: Defining Gangs and Gang Members
Defining Gangs
Typologies of Gang Members and Gang Structures
Gang Subculture
Gang Graffiti
A European Gang Definition
A Recommended Gang Definition for Practical Purposes
Defining Gang Members
Demographic Characteristics of U.S. Gangs and Gang Members
Chapter 4: General Macro-Level Theories and Modern-Day Applications
The Chicago School and Development of the Social Disorganization Perspective
Application of Social Disorganization Theory to Gangs
A General Explanation of Gang Origins, Expansion, and Violence
Other Macro-Level Theories
Chapter 5: Micro-Level Theories: Developmental Life-Course Pathways and Other Micro-Level Explanations for Gang Involvement
Location of Gang Membership in Developmental Pathways
Developmental Theories
An Illustration of the Life-Course Model of Gang Involvement
A Broad Developmental Gang Theory
The Gang Joining Process
“The Digital Street”: Gangs on Social Media
Apex of Gang Member Criminal Activity
Long-Term Impact of Gang Membership on Participants
Desistance From Gang Membership
Other Micro-Level Gang Theories
Chapter 6: Girls and Gangs
Females in Early Gang Studies
Modern-Day Studies of Female Gang Members
Level of Female Gang Involvement and Seriousness of Crimes
The Question of Increasing Female Gang Involvement
The Importance of Gang Gender Composition
Female Associates of Gang Members: Risks and ReVictimization
Girls’ Unique Treatment Needs and Implications for Prevention and Treatment
Chapter 7: National Gang Problem Trends: 1996 to 2012
An Overview of Nationwide Gang Activity in the Modern Era
Nationally Reported Youth Gang Activity From the Mid-1990s
Patterns in U.S. Localities’ Histories of Gang Activity
Patterns of Gang Presence in Larger Cities
Modal Cities
Regional Variations in Gang Presence
Explaining the Emergence, Persistence, and Decline of Gang Activity
Chapter 8: Urban Gangs and Violence
The Intensity of Gangs in Cities
Serious Gang Problem Trends
A National Perspective of Gang Structures
Key Structural Features of Violent Gangs Nationwide
A Social Network Approach to Gang Cohesion
Gunshot Injury Risk Associated with Social Networks
Case Studies of Gang Problems in Large Cities
Contextual Characteristics That Contribute to Serious Gang Problems
Chapter 9: What Works: Prevention
Risk-Focused, Data-Driven, and Research-Based Gang Prevention
A Framework for Prevention and Early Intervention
Building a Continuum of Effective Delinquency Prevention and Early-Intervention Programs
Chapter 10: What Works: Intervention and Suppression
Evidence-Based Gang Programs
Promising Gang Programs
The Utility of Gang Intelligence Databases
The Comprehensive, Community-Wide Gang Program Model
The Evidence-Based Comprehensive Gang Program Model
Project Safe Neighborhoods
Glossary
References
Index

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