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Educational Psychology: Developing Learners

Educational Psychology: Developing Learners 10th Edition

By: Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Eric M. Anderman Lynley H. Anderman
ISBN-10: 0135206472
/ ISBN-13: 9780135208212
Edition: 10th Edition
Language: English
				
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Contents

Chapter 1 Teaching and Educational Psychology

    • Learning Outcomes
    • Reflecting on What You Already Know About Learning and Instruction
    • Studying and Learning Effectively
    • Developing as a Teacher
    • Understanding and Interpreting Research Findings
    • Quantitative Research
    • Descriptive Studies
    • Correlational Studies
    • Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Studies
    • Qualitative Research
    • Mixed-Methods Research
    • Interpreting Research Results: A Cautionary Note
    • From Research to Practice: The Importance of Principles and Theories
    • Collecting Data and Drawing Conclusions About Your Own Students
    • Assessing Students’ Achievements and Interpreting Their Classroom Behaviors
    • Conducting Action Research
    • Chapter 1 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam New Software

Part 1 Development and Diversity

    • Chapter 2 Cognitive and Linguistic Development
    • Learning Outcomes
    • General Principles of Human Development
    • The Multiple Layers of Environmental Influence: Bioecological Systems and the Importance of Culture
    • Role of the Brain in Learning and Development
    • Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
    • Piaget’s Basic Assumptions
    • Piaget’s Proposed Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Preoperational Stage (Age 2 Through Age 6 Or 7)
    • Concrete Operations Stage (Age 6 Or 7 Through Age 11 or 12)
    • Formal Operations Stage (Age 11 or 12 through Adulthood)
    • Critiquing Piaget’s Theory
    • A Second Look at Piaget’s Stages
    • Considering Diversity from the Perspective of Piaget’s Theory
    • Contemporary Extensions and Applications of Piaget’s Theory
    • Neo-Piagetian Theories
    • Piaget’s Clinical Method as an Assessment Tool
    • Hands-on Experiences
    • Creating Disequilibrium: The Value of Sociocognitive Conflict
    • Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development
    • Vygotsky’s Basic Assumptions
    • Critiquing Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Considering Diversity from the Perspective of Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Contemporary Extensions and Applications of Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Social Construction of Meaning
    • Scaffolding
    • Guided Participation in Challenging New Activities
    • Apprenticeships
    • Contrasting Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories
    • Language Development
    • Theoretical Issues Regarding Language Development
    • Diversity in Language Development
    • Second-Language Learning and English Language Learners
    • Bilingualism
    • Teaching a Second Language
    • Chapter 2 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam A Floating Stone
    • Chapter 3 Personal and Social Development
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Personality Development
    • Temperament
    • Environmental Influences on Personality Development
    • Family Dynamics
    • Child Maltreatment
    • Cultural Expectations and Socialization
    • The “Big Five” Personality Traits
    • Temperament, Personality, and Goodness of Fit
    • Development of a Sense of Self
    • Factors Influencing Sense of Self
    • Developmental Changes in Sense of Self
    • Childhood
    • Early Adolescence
    • Late Adolescence
    • Diversity in Sense of Self
    • Gender Differences
    • Cultural and Ethnic Differences
    • Development of Peer Relationships and Interpersonal Understandings
    • Roles of Peers in Children’s Development
    • Common Social Groups in Childhood and Adolescence
    • Friendships
    • Cliques, Crowds, and Subcultures
    • Gangs
    • Romantic Relationships
    • Popularity and Social Isolation
    • Social Cognition
    • Perspective Taking
    • Childhood.
    • Early adolescence.
    • Late adolescence.
    • Promoting perspective taking.
    • Social Information Processing
    • Aggression
    • Technology and Peer Relationships
    • Diversity in Peer Relationships and Social Cognition
    • Gender Differences
    • Cultural and Ethnic Differences
    • Promoting Healthy Peer Relationships
    • Moral and Prosocial Development
    • Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior
    • Factors Influencing Moral and Prosocial Development
    • Diversity in Moral and Prosocial Development
    • Gender Differences
    • Cultural and Ethnic Differences
    • Encouraging Moral and Prosocial Development at School
    • Chapter 3 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam The Scarlet Letter
    • Chapter 4 Group Differences
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Cultural and Ethnic Differences
    • Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School
    • Cultural Competence
    • Language and Dialect
    • Talkativeness and Verbal Assertiveness
    • Eye Contact
    • Personal Space
    • Responding to Questions
    • Public Versus Private Performance
    • Views about Teasing
    • Cooperation Versus Competition
    • Family Relationships and Expectations
    • Conceptions of Time
    • Worldviews
    • Creating a Culturally Inclusive Classroom Environment
    • Gender Differences
    • Research Findings Regarding Gender Differences
    • Physical Activity And Motor Skills
    • Cognitive and Academic Abilities
    • Experience with Technology
    • Motivation in Academic Activities
    • Sense of Self
    • Interpersonal Behaviors and Relationships
    • Classroom Behaviors
    • Career Aspirations
    • Origins of Gender Differences
    • Making Appropriate Accommodations for Gender Differences
    • Socioeconomic Differences
    • Challenges Associated with Poverty
    • Poor Nutrition and Health.
    • Inadequate Housing and Frequent Moves.
    • Exposure to Toxic Substances.
    • Unhealthy Social Environments.
    • Emotional Stress.
    • Gaps in Background Knowledge.
    • Lower-quality Schools.
    • Fostering Resilience
    • Working with Homeless Students
    • Students at Risk
    • Characteristics of Students at Risk
    • Why Students Drop Out
    • Supporting Students at Risk
    • Chapter 4 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam The Active and the Passive
    • Chapter 5 Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Intelligence
    • Theoretical Perspectives of Intelligence
    • Spearman’s Concept of g
    • Cattell’s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligences
    • Cattell–Horn–Carroll Theory of Cognitive Abilities
    • Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
    • Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence
    • Developmental Views of Intelligence
    • Distributed Intelligence
    • Measuring Intelligence
    • IQ Scores and School Achievement
    • Nature and Nurture in the Development of Intelligence
    • Intelligence and the Brain
    • Cultural and Ethnic Diversity in Intelligence
    • Being Smart About Intelligence and IQ Scores
    • Cognitive Styles and Dispositions
    • There’s No Such Thing as Learning Styles
    • Does It Make Sense to Teach to Students’ “Right Brains” or “Left Brains”?
    • Analytic and Holistic Thinking
    • Dispositions
    • Educating Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms
    • Public Law 94-142: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    • Potential Benefits and Drawbacks of Inclusion
    • Identifying Students’ Special Needs
    • Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties
    • Learning Disabilities
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    • Common Characteristics
    • Medication and ADHD
    • Adapting Instruction
    • Speech and Communication Disorders
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • General Recommendations
    • Students with Social or Behavioral Problems
    • Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • Autism Spectrum Disorders
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • General Recommendations
    • Students with General Delays in Cognitive and Social Functioning
    • Intellectual Disabilities
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • Students with Physical or Sensory Challenges
    • Physical and Health Impairments
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • Visual Impairments
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • Hearing Loss
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • General Recommendations
    • Students with Advanced Cognitive Development
    • Giftedness
    • Common Characteristics
    • Adapting Instruction
    • Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs
    • General Recommendations for Working with Students Who Have Special Needs
    • Chapter 5 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam Quiet Amy

Part 2 Learning and Motivation

    • Chapter 6 Learning, Cognition, and Memory
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology
    • A Model of Human Memory
    • The Nature of the Sensory Register
    • Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention
    • The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory
    • Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior Knowledge
    • The Nature of Long-Term Memory
    • Learning, Memory, and the Brain
    • Critiquing the Three-Component Model
    • Long-Term Memory Storage
    • How Knowledge Can Be Organized
    • How Declarative Knowledge Is Learned
    • Rote Learning
    • Meaningful Learning
    • Elaboration.
    • Internal organization.
    • Visual imagery.
    • Developmental Trends in Storage Processes for Declarative Information
    • How Procedural Knowledge Is Learned
    • Roles of Prior Knowledge and Working Memory in Long-Term Memory Storage
    • Encouraging a Meaningful Learning Set and Conceptual Understanding
    • Using Technology to Facilitate Meaningful Learning
    • Using Mnemonics in the Absence of Relevant Prior Knowledge
    • When Knowledge Construction Goes Awry: Addressing Learners’ Misconceptions
    • Obstacles to Conceptual Change
    • Promoting Conceptual Change
    • Long-Term Memory Retrieval
    • Factors Affecting Retrieval
    • Multiple Connections with Existing Knowledge and a Variety of Contexts
    • Distinctiveness
    • Emotional Overtones
    • Regular Practice and Review
    • Relevant Retrieval Cues
    • Wait Time
    • Why Learners Sometimes Forget
    • Failure to Store or Consolidate Information in Long-Term Memory
    • Decay
    • Unsuccessful Search of Long-Term Memory
    • Interference
    • Reconstruction Error
    • Diversity in Cognitive Processes
    • Facilitating Cognitive Processing in Students with Special Needs
    • Chapter 6 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam Vision Unit
    • Chapter 7 Complex Cognitive Processes
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Thinking About Thinking and Learning How to Learn: The Importance of Metacognition
    • Effective Learning Strategies
    • Overt Strategies
    • Taking notes.
    • Creating summaries.
    • Covert Strategies
    • Identifying important information.
    • Regularly monitoring learning.
    • Factors Affecting Strategy Use
    • Metacognitive Strategies in the Digital Age
    • Diversity, Disabilities, and Exceptional Abilities in Metacognition
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Transfer
    • Factors Affecting Transfer
    • Problem Solving and Creativity
    • Factors Affecting Problem-Solving Success and Creative Thinking
    • Teaching Problem-Solving Strategies
    • Fostering Creative Thinking
    • Using Computer Technology to Foster and Support Creative Problem-Solving
    • Critical Thinking
    • Encouraging Critical Thinking in the Classroom, the Outside World, and Cyberspace
    • Diversity in Transfer, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Critical Thinking
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Chapter 7 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam Interview with Charlie
    • Chapter 8 Learning and Cognition in Context
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Basic Assumptions of Contextual Theories
    • Social Interactions as Contexts
    • Interactions with More Advanced Individuals
    • Interactions with Peers
    • Creating a Community of Learners
    • Cultures as Contexts
    • Schemas, Scripts, and Worldviews as Aspects of Culture
    • Communities of Practice as Aspects of Culture
    • Societies as Contexts
    • Authentic Activities
    • Digital Technologies as Contexts
    • Technology in Learning and Instruction
    • General Guidelines for Using Technology Effectively in Instruction
    • Promoting Technological Literacy
    • Online Learning
    • Academic Content Domains as Contexts
    • Language Arts: Reading and Writing
    • The Nature of Skilled Reading
    • The Nature of Skilled Writing
    • Promoting Reading and Writing Development
    • Mathematics
    • Promoting Learning in Mathematics
    • Science
    • Promoting Learning in Science
    • Social Studies
    • The Nature of Historical Knowledge and Thinking
    • The Nature of Geographic Knowledge and Thinking
    • Promoting Learning in Social Studies
    • Taking Student Diversity into Account
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Chapter 8 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam The Birth of a Nation
    • Chapter 9 Behaviorist Views of Learning
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism
    • Building on Existing Stimulus–Response Associations: Classical Conditioning
    • Classical Conditioning of Involuntary Emotional Responses
    • Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning
    • Generalization
    • Extinction
    • Addressing Counterproductive Emotional Responses
    • Learning from Consequences: Instrumental Conditioning
    • Contrasting Classical Conditioning and Instrumental Conditioning
    • The Various Forms That Reinforcement Can Take
    • Primary versus Secondary Reinforcers
    • Positive versus Negative Reinforcement
    • Positive reinforcement.
    • Negative reinforcement.
    • Looking at Reinforcement from a Developmental Perspective
    • The Various Forms That Punishment Can Take
    • Consequences That Serve as Effective Punishment
    • Forms of Punishment That May Undermine Desired Behavior Changes
    • Consequences with Mixed Reviews
    • Strategies for Encouraging Productive Behaviors and Discouraging Undesirable Ones
    • Using Reinforcement Effectively
    • Shaping New Behaviors
    • Encouraging Desired Behaviors Through Antecedent Stimuli and Responses
    • Cueing
    • Setting Events
    • Generalization
    • Discrimination
    • Behavioral Momentum
    • Creating Conditions for Extinction
    • Cueing Inappropriate Behaviors
    • Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors
    • Using Punishment When Necessary
    • Reflecting on the Consequences You Either Intentionally or Unintentionally Impose
    • Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors
    • Applied Behavior Analysis
    • Functional Analysis
    • Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
    • Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
    • Diversity in Student Behaviors and Reactions to Consequences
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Chapter 9 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam Hostile Helen
    • Chapter 10 Social Cognitive Views of Learning
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory
    • The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment
    • Modeling
    • Behaviors and Skills That Can Be Learned Through Modeling
    • Academic Skills
    • Aggression
    • Productive Interpersonal Behaviors
    • Characteristics of Effective Models
    • Essential Conditions for Successful Modeling
    • Attention
    • Retention
    • Motor Reproduction
    • Motivation
    • Self-Efficacy
    • How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition
    • Choice of Activities
    • Goals
    • Effort and Persistence
    • Learning and Achievement
    • Some Overconfidence—But Not Too Much—Can Be Beneficial
    • Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy
    • Previous Successes and Failures
    • Current Emotional State
    • Messages from Others
    • Successes and Failures of Other Individuals
    • Successes and Failures as Part of a Group
    • Teacher Self-Efficacy
    • Self-Regulation
    • Self-Regulated Behavior
    • Self-Determined Standards and Goals
    • Emotion Regulation
    • Self-Instructions
    • Self-Monitoring
    • Self-Evaluation
    • Self-Imposed Contingencies
    • Self-Regulated Learning
    • Promoting Self-Regulated Learning
    • Self-Regulated Problem Solving
    • Self-Regulation in Online Learning Environments
    • Diversity in Self-Regulation
    • Promoting Self-Regulation in Students at Risk
    • Supporting Students with Special Needs
    • Revisiting Reciprocal Causation
    • Scene 1
    • Scene 2
    • Comparing Theoretical Perspectives of Learning
    • Chapter 10 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam Teacher’s Lament
    • Chapter 11 Motivation and Affect
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Nature of Motivation
    • Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation
    • Basic Human Needs
    • Arousal
    • Cognitive and Sociocultural Factors in Motivation
    • Expectancies and Values
    • Fostering Expectancies and Values in the Classroom
    • Interests
    • Promoting Interest in Classroom Subject Matter
    • Self-Determination
    • The Need for Competence
    • Enhancing Students’ Sense of Competence.
    • The Need for Autonomy
    • Enhancing Students’ Sense of Autonomy
    • The Need For Relatedness
    • Enhancing Students’ Sense of Relatedness and School Belonging
    • Diversity in Addressing Needs
    • Achieving a Sense of Competence
    • Achieving a Sense of Autonomy
    • Achieving a Sense of Relatedness
    • Internalizing Values and Motivational Beliefs of One’s Social and Cultural Groups
    • Attributions
    • How Attributions Influence Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior
    • Developmental Trends in Attributions
    • Goal Theories
    • Achievement Goals
    • Effects of Mastery and Performance Goals
    • Developmental Trends in Achievement Goals
    • Fostering Productive Achievement Goals
    • Work-Avoidance Goals
    • Social Goals
    • Long-Term Life Goals
    • Coordinating Multiple Goals
    • Mindsets
    • Learned Helplessness
    • Short-Term Motivation Interventions
    • Diversity in Cognitive and Sociocultural Factors Affecting Motivation
    • Cultural and Ethnic Differences
    • Gender Differences
    • Socioeconomic Differences
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Effects of Teacher Attributions and Expectations on Students’ Motivation
    • How Teacher Attributions and Expectations Affect Students’ Achievement
    • Targets: A Mnemonic for Remembering Motivational Strategies
    • Affect and Its Effects
    • How Affect and Motivation Are Interrelated
    • How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition
    • Anxiety in the Classroom
    • How Anxiety Affects Learning and Performance
    • Sources of Anxiety
    • A Multiple Whammy: Making the Transition to a Secondary School Format
    • Keeping Students’ Anxiety at a Facilitative Level
    • Diversity in Affect
    • Cultural and Ethnic Differences
    • Gender Differences
    • Socioeconomic Differences
    • Motivating Students in Any Environment
    • Chapter 11 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam When “Perfect” Isn’t Good Enough

Part 3 Classroom Strategies

    • Chapter 12 Instructional Strategies
    • Learning Outcomes
    • General Principles That Can Guide Instruction
    • Planning for Instruction
    • Identifying the Goals of Instruction
    • Aligning Instructional Goals with National, International, and State Standards
    • Writing Useful Goals and Objectives
    • Conducting a Task Analysis
    • Developing a Lesson Plan
    • Creating a Class Website to Share Goals and Facilitate Communication Throughout the School Year
    • Teacher-Directed Instructional Strategies
    • Presenting New Material Through Traditional Expository Methods: Lectures and Textbooks
    • Asking Questions and Giving Feedback
    • Providing Practice Through In-Class Assignments
    • Giving Homework
    • Conducting Direct Instruction
    • Promoting Mastery
    • Using Instructional Websites Effectively
    • Promoting Deliberate Practice
    • Helping Students Learn How to Learn
    • Learner-Directed Instructional Strategies
    • Stimulating and Guiding Class Discussions
    • Conducting Reciprocal Teaching Sessions
    • Conducting Discovery and Inquiry Activities
    • Conducting Cooperative Learning Activities
    • Structuring Peer Tutoring Sessions
    • Conducting Technology-Based Collaborative Learning Activities
    • Taking Instructional Goals and Student Diversity into Account
    • Considering Group Differences
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Chapter 12 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam Cooperative Learning Project
    • Chapter 13 Creating a Productive Learning Environment
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Creating a Setting Conducive to Learning
    • Arranging the Classroom
    • Establishing and Maintaining Productive Teacher–Student Relationships
    • Creating an Effective Psychological Climate
    • Setting Limits
    • Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task
    • Monitoring What Students Are Doing
    • Modifying Instructional Strategies
    • Taking Developmental Differences into Account
    • Taking Individual and Group Differences into Account
    • Cultural and Ethnic Differences
    • Gender Differences
    • Socioeconomic Differences
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Expanding the Sense of Community Beyond the Classroom
    • Working with Other Faculty Members
    • Working with the Community at Large
    • Working with Parents
    • Communicating with Parents
    • Parent–Teacher Conferences.
    • Written Communication.
    • Class Websites.
    • Telephone Conversations.
    • Parent Discussion Groups.
    • Getting Parents Involved in School Activities.
    • Encouraging Reluctant Parents
    • Considering Cultural Differences When Working with Parents
    • Dealing with Misbehaviors
    • Ignoring Certain Behaviors
    • Cueing Students
    • Discussing Problems Privately with Students
    • Recognizing Microaggressions
    • Teaching Self-Regulation Skills
    • Conferring with Parents
    • Conducting Planned, Systematic Interventions
    • Taking Students’ Cultural Backgrounds into Account
    • Addressing Aggression and Violence at School
    • Bullying and Cyberbullying
    • TIER I: Primary/Universal Schoolwide Efforts to Prevent Bad Behavior
    • TIER II: Targeted Intervening Early for Students at Risk
    • TIER III: Providing Intensive Intervention for Students in Trouble (Tertiary ­Supports)
    • Addressing Gang-Related Problems
    • Chapter 13 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam The Good Buddy
    • Chapter 14 Classroom Assessment Strategies That Promote Learning
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Many Forms and Purposes of Assessment
    • Guiding Instructional Decision Making
    • Determining What Students Have Learned from Instruction
    • Evaluating the Quality of Instruction
    • Diagnosing Learning and Performance Problems
    • Promoting Learning
    • Enhancing Learning Through Ongoing Assessments and Regular Feedback
    • Including Students in the Assessment Process
    • Using Digital Technologies in Formative Assessment
    • Important Qualities of Good Assessments
    • Reliability
    • Standardization
    • Validity
    • Content Validity
    • Predictive Validity
    • Construct Validity
    • Practicality
    • Assessing Students’ Progress and Achievement Both Informally and Formally
    • Informally Observing Students’ Behaviors
    • RSVP Characteristics of Informal Assessments
    • Reliability.
    • Standardization.
    • Validity.
    • Practicality.
    • Using Paper–Pencil Assessments
    • Constructing a Paper–Pencil Assessment
    • Administering a Paper–Pencil Assessment
    • Scoring Students’ Responses to a Paper–Pencil Assessment
    • Rsvp Characteristics of Paper–Pencil Assessments
    • Reliability.
    • Standardization.
    • Validity.
    • Practicality.
    • Using Performance Assessments
    • Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks
    • Products versus processes.
    • Individual versus group performance.
    • Restricted versus extended performance.
    • Planning and Administering a Performance Assessment
    • Scoring Students’ Responses in a Performance Assessment
    • RSVP Characteristics of Performance Assessments
    • Reliability.
    • Standardization.
    • Validity.
    • Practicality.
    • Additional Considerations in Formal Assessment
    • Teaching Testwiseness
    • Keeping Test Anxiety in Check
    • Encouraging Academic Risk Taking
    • Evaluating an Assessment After the Fact: Item Analysis
    • Item difficulty.
    • Item discrimination.
    • Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessments
    • Accommodating Group Differences
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Chapter 14 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam Two Science Quizzes
    • Chapter 15 Summarizing Students’ Achievements and Abilities
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment
    • Raw Scores
    • Criterion-Referenced Scores
    • Norm-Referenced Scores
    • Grade-Equivalent and Age-Equivalent Scores
    • Percentile Scores
    • Standard Scores
    • Using Criterion-Referenced versus Norm-Referenced Scores in the Classroom
    • Determining Achievement Using Final Grades and Portfolios
    • Considering—Or Not Considering—Other Factors in Grading
    • Considering improvement.
    • Considering effort.
    • Giving extra credit.
    • Addressing lateness and missing work.
    • Including Students in the Grading Process
    • Using Portfolios
    • Types and Purposes of Portfolios
    • Benefits and Limitations of Portfolios
    • Helping Students Construct Portfolios
    • Standardized Tests
    • Types of Standardized Tests
    • Achievement Tests
    • General Scholastic Aptitude and Intelligence Tests
    • Specific Aptitude and Ability Tests
    • School Readiness Tests
    • Individual versus Group Administration of Standardized Tests
    • Guidelines for Choosing and Using Standardized Tests
    • Interpreting Standardized Test Scores
    • High-Stakes Testing and Teacher Accountability
    • The Every Student Succeeds Act
    • Problems with High-Stakes Testing
    • Productive Steps Forward in High-Stakes Testing
    • Taking Student Diversity into Account
    • Cultural Bias in Test Content
    • Cultural and Ethnic Differences
    • Language Differences and English Language Learners
    • Accommodating Students with Special Needs
    • Confidentiality and Communication About Assessment Results
    • Communicating Assessment Results to Students and Parents
    • Chapter 15 What Have You Learned?
    • Practice for Your Licensure Exam Can Johnny Read?

Appendix A Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients

Appendix B Determining Reliability and Predictive Validity

    • Determining Reliability
    • Estimating Error in Assessment Results.
    • Determining Predictive Validity

Appendix C Matching Text and MyLab Education Content to the PRAXIS® Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests

 

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