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Cultural Anthropology: A Global Perspective Interactive Edition

Cultural Anthropology: A Global Perspective Interactive Edition 10th Edition

By: Raymond Scupin
ISBN-10: 1071807056
/ ISBN-13: 9781071807040
Edition: 10th Edition
Language: English
				
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Chapter 1 • Introduction to Anthropology

    • Anthropology: The Four Subfields
    • Biological Anthropology
    • Archaeology
    • Linguistic Anthropology
    • Cultural Anthropology
    • Applied Anthropology
    • Holistic Anthropology, Interdisciplinary Research, and the Global Perspective
    • Anthropological Explanations
    • Evaluating Anthropological Data
    • Humanistic-Interpretive Approaches in Anthropology
    • Why Study Anthropology?
    • Critical Thinking and Global Awareness
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives 17
    • Key Terms

Chapter 2 • Human Evolution

    • Theory of Evolution
    • Origin Myths
    • Western Origin Myths
    • The Scientific Revolution
    • Darwin, Wallace, and Natural Selection
    • Examples of Natural Selection
    • Principles of Inheritance
    • The Evolution of Life
    • Hominin Evolution
    • Australopithecus
    • Homo
    • Early Stone Tools: The Lower Paleolithic
    • Homo erectus
    • Migration of Homo erectus
    • Fire
    • Acheulean Technology
    • Transition to Homo sapiens
    • Neandertal Technology: The Middle Paleolithic
    • Neandertal Ritual and Beliefs?
    • Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens
    • The Evolution of Modern Homo sapiens
    • Multiregional Evolutionary Model
    • Replacement Model
    • Hybridization and Assimilation Models
    • Modern Homo sapiens Culture: The Upper Paleolithic
    • Upper Paleolithic Tools
    • Upper Paleolithic Shelters
    • Variations in Upper Paleolithic Technologies
    • Upper Paleolithic Subsistence and Social Organization
    • Social Organization
    • The Upper Paleolithic in Africa and Europe
    • Migration of Upper Paleolithic Humans
    • Upper Paleolithic Hunters in America
    • Physical Variation in Modern Humans
    • Skin Color
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 3 • Culture

    • The Characteristics of Culture
    • Culture Is Learned
    • Symbols and Symbolic Learning
    • Symbols and Signs
    • Symbols and Culture
    • Culture Is Shared
    • Aspects of Culture
    • Values
    • Beliefs
    • Norms
    • Folkways
    • Mores
    • Ideal Versus Real Culture
    • Cultural Diversity
    • Food and Diversity
    • Dress Codes and Symbolism
    • Ethnicity
    • Cultural Universals
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 4 • The Process of Enculturation: Psychological and Cognitive Anthropology

    • Biology Versus Culture
    • Instincts and Human Nature
    • Human Beings as Animals
    • Instincts in Animals
    • Instincts and Learned Behaviors
    • Do Humans Possess Instincts?
    • Drives
    • Culture Versus Instinct
    • Enculturation: Culture and Personality
    • Early Studies of Enculturation
    • Benedict and Culture Types
    • Mead in Samoa
    • The Culture-and-Personality School: An Evaluation
    • The Freeman–Mead Controversy
    • Childhood Acquisition of Cultural Knowledge
    • Japanese Childhood Enculturation
    • Psychoanalytic Approaches in Anthropology
    • Sigmund Freud’s Influence
    • Enculturation and Cognition
    • Structuralism
    • Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky
    • Cognitive Anthropology
    • Evolutionary Psychology
    • Enculturation and Emotions
    • Neuroanthropology
    • The Limits of Enculturation
    • Unique Biological Tendencies
    • Individual Variation and Agency
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 5 • Language

    • Nonhuman Animal Communication
    • Teaching Apes to Sign
    • Ape Sign Language Reexamined
    • Ethological Research on Ape Communication
    • Chimpanzee Communication: Jane Goodall
    • Animal Communication Versus Human Language
    • Productivity
    • Displacement
    • Arbitrariness
    • Combining Sounds to Produce Meanings
    • The Evolution of Language
    • The Human Brain and Speech
    • Human Anatomy and Speech
    • Could Early Hominins Speak?
    • The Structure of Language
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Syntax
    • Semantics
    • Kinship Terms
    • Language Acquisition
    • Chomsky on Language Acquisition
    • Creole and Pidgin Languages
    • Sign Language in Nicaragua
    • Language, Thought, and Culture
    • The Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis
    • A Case Study: The Hopi Language
    • Universals of Time Expression
    • Weak Linguistic Relativity
    • Historical Linguistics
    • The Family-Tree Model
    • Assessing Language Change
    • Sociolinguistics
    • Dialectical Differences in Spoken Language
    • African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
    • Honorifics in Language
    • Greeting Behaviors
    • Nonverbal Communication
    • Kinesics
    • Proxemics
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 6 • Anthropological Explanations

    • Nineteenth-Century Evolutionism
    • Unilineal Evolution: Tylor
    • Unilineal Evolution: Morgan
    • Morgan and Kinship Theories
    • Unilineal Evolution: A Critique
    • Diffusionism
    • British Diffusionism
    • German Diffusionism
    • The Limitations and Strengths of Diffusionism
    • Historical Particularism
    • Boas Versus the Unilineal Evolutionists
    • Functionalism
    • Structural Functionalism: Radcliffe-Brown
    • Psychological Functionalism: Malinowski
    • The Limitations of Functionalism
    • Twentieth-Century Evolutionism
    • Steward and Cultural Ecology
    • A Case Study: The Shoshone
    • The Strengths of Neoevolutionism
    • Cultural Materialism
    • Criticisms of Cultural Materialism
    • Marxist Anthropology
    • Evaluation of Marxist Anthropology
    • Symbolic Anthropology: A Humanistic Method of Inquiry
    • Criticisms of Symbolic Anthropology
    • Materialism Versus Culturalism
    • Feminist Anthropology
    • Criticisms of Feminist Anthropology
    • Postmodernism and Anthropology
    • Postmodernists and Contemporary Research
    • Twenty-First-Century Cultural Evolution
    • Shifts in Anthropological Explanations
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 7 • Analyzing Sociocultural Systems

    • Ethnographic Fieldwork
    • Ethnographic Research and Strategies
    • Key Informants
    • Interviews
    • Quantitative and Qualitative Data
    • Culture Shock
    • Life History Projects and Ethnography
    • Ethics in Anthropological Research
    • Analysis of Ethnographic Data
    • Universals, Independent and Dependent Variables
    • Universals and Variables Studied by Cultural Anthropologists
    • Sociocultural Evolution: A Contemporary Model
    • Types of Sociocultural Systems
    • Foraging, Band, or Hunter-Gatherer Societies
    • The Concept of Tribe in Anthropology
    • The Concept of the Chiefdom
    • Agricultural States
    • Industrial and Postindustrial States
    • Cross-Cultural Research
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 8 • Environment, Subsistence, and Demography

    • Subsistence and the Physical Environment
    • Modern Cultural Ecology
    • Biomes
    • Subsistence Patterns and Environments
    • Demography
    • Fertility, Mortality, and Migration
    • Fecundity
    • Life Expectancy
    • Population and Environment
    • Population and Culture
    • Modern Foraging Environments and Subsistence
    • Deserts
    • Tropical Rain Forests
    • Arctic Regions
    • Mobility and Subsistence
    • Demographic Conditions for Foragers
    • Fissioning
    • Infanticide and Geronticide
    • Fertility Rates for Foragers
    • Environment and Subsistence for Horticulturalists and Pastoralists
    • Amazon Horticulturalists: The Yanomamö
    • New Guinea Horticulturalists: The Tsembaga
    • Horticulturalists in Woodland Forest Areas: The Iroquois
    • Environment and Subsistence for Pastoralists
    • East African Cattle Complex
    • The Nuer
    • Demographics and Settlement
    • Environment, Subsistence, and Demography for Chiefdoms
    • Pacific Island Chiefdoms
    • African Chiefdoms
    • Native American Chiefdoms
    • The Mississippi Region
    • The Northwest Coast
    • Demography in Chiefdoms
    • Environment and Demography in Agricultural States
    • Environment and Energy Use in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies
    • High Energy Consumption Patterns
    • Demographic Change
    • The Demographic-Transition Model Applied
    • Urbanization
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 9 • Technology and Economics

    • Anthropological Explanations of Technology
    • Anthropology and Economics
    • The Formalist Approach
    • The Substantivist Approach
    • Contemporary Economic Anthropology
    • Technology in Foraging Societies
    • Economics in Foraging Societies
    • Reciprocity
    • Generalized Reciprocity
    • Balanced Reciprocity
    • Negative Reciprocity
    • Exchange and Altruism
    • Collective Ownership of Property
    • The Original Affluent Society?
    • The Affluence Hypothesis Challenged
    • Technology Among Horticulturalists and Pastoralists
    • Horticulturalist Technology
    • Pastoralist Technology
    • Economics in Horticulturalist and Pastoralist Societies
    • Money
    • Property Ownership
    • Technology in Chiefdoms
    • Housing in Chiefdoms
    • Economics in Chiefdoms
    • Food Storage
    • Property Ownership
    • Political Aspects of Property Ownership
    • Economic Exchange in Chiefdoms
    • Reciprocal Exchange
    • The Kula Exchange
    • Redistributional Exchange
    • Potlatch
    • Redistribution in Polynesia
    • Technology in Agricultural States
    • Agricultural Innovations
    • The Diffusion of Technology
    • Economics in Agricultural States
    • Property Rights
    • The Command Economy Versus the Entrepreneur
    • The Peasantry
    • The Moral Economy
    • Trade and Monetary Exchange
    • The Rise of Merchants and Peripheral Markets
    • Technology and Economic Change in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies
    • Technology and Work
    • The Division of Labor
    • Economic Exchange
    • Market Economies
    • Perspectives on Market Economies
    • Capitalism
    • Capitalism in the United States
    • Capitalism in Japan
    • Socialism
    • Socialism in the Former Soviet Union
    • Recent Global Changes in Socialist Countries
    • The Former Soviet Union: Perestroika
    • Socialism to State Capitalism: Russia and China
    • Hybrid Economic Systems
    • The Evolution of Economic Organizations
    • Multinational Corporations
    • Capitalist Consumer Societies
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 10 • Social Structure, the Family, Marriage, and Age

    • Social Structure
    • Components of Social Structure
    • The Family
    • Marriage
    • Understanding Incest Avoidance and the Incest Taboo
    • Biological Explanations of Incest Avoidance
    • Marital Alliance and the Incest Taboo
    • Childhood Familiarity Hypothesis
    • Incest Avoidance: Biocultural Perspectives
    • Age
    • Age and Enculturation
    • Age and the Division of Labor
    • Age and Status
    • Social Structure in Hunter-Gatherer Societies
    • Marriage and Kinship
    • Marriage Rules
    • Brideservice
    • Other Marital Patterns Among Foragers
    • Divorce
    • Age
    • The Roles of the Elderly
    • Childcare Activities
    • Social Structure in Tribes
    • Families
    • Descent Groups
    • Unilineal Descent Groups
    • Ambilineal Descent Groups
    • Bilateral Descent Groups
    • Clans
    • Phratries and Moieties
    • Functions of Descent Groups
    • Descent Groups and Economic Relationships
    • Marriage
    • Polygyny
    • Bridewealth Exchange
    • Polyandry
    • The Levirate and Sororate
    • Postmarital Residence Rules in Tribal Societies
    • Causes of Postmarital Residence Rules
    • Generalizations on Marriage in Tribal Societies
    • Divorce
    • Age
    • Age Sets
    • Age Sets and Age Grades Among the Tribal Pastoralists
    • The Elderly
    • Social Structure in Chiefdoms
    • Rank and Sumptuary Rules
    • A Case Study: Polynesia and Stratified Descent Groups
    • Marriage
    • Endogamy
    • Polygyny
    • General Social Principles in Chiefdoms
    • Age
    • Slavery
    • Social Structure in Agricultural States
    • Kinship and Status
    • The Extended Family
    • Other Kinship Principles
    • Family Structure Among the Nayar
    • Marriage
    • Dowry and Bridewealth
    • Polygyny
    • Divorce
    • Social Stratification in Agricultural States
    • The Caste System
    • Slavery
    • Social Structure in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies
    • Kinship
    • Family
    • Marriage
    • Divorce
    • Age
    • Social Stratification in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies
    • The British Class System
    • Class in the United States
    • Class in Japan and the Former Soviet Union
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 11 • Gender and Sexuality

    • The Complexities of Sex
    • Male and Female Brain Differences?
    • Sex and the Division of Labor
    • The Complexities of Gender
    • Gender and Enculturation
    • Gender and Status
    • Transgender and LGBTQ Individuals
    • Gender in Foraging Societies
    • Gender and the Division of Labor
    • Sex-Based Explanations of the Division of Labor
    • Female Status
    • Gender in Tribal Societies
    • Gender and Enculturation: Margaret Mead’s Study
    • Mead’s Study Reappraised
    • Patriarchy in Tribal Societies
    • Patriarchy and Sexism in Tribal Societies
    • Gender, Subsistence, and Female Status
    • Female Status in Matrilineal Societies
    • The Haudenosaunee (Formerly Called Iroquois)
    • Gender in Chiefdom Societies
    • Gender in Agricultural States
    • Gender, Subsistence, and Status
    • Female Seclusion
    • Patriarchy and Sexism
    • Variations in the Status of Women
    • Gender in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies
    • Gender and the Division of Labor
    • Female Status in Industrial Societies
    • Feminism
    • Gender in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia
    • Machismo in Latin America
    • Gender in Africa
    • Urban African Women
    • Gender in the Middle East
    • The Veil and Seclusion
    • Gender and Status in South Asia
    • Gender in China
    • Sexuality in Different Societies
    • Codes of Sexual Behavior
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 12 • Politics, Warfare, and Law

    • Politics, Warfare, and Law
    • Decision Making in a Political System
    • Warfare and Feuds
    • Law and Social Control
    • Law as Formalized Norms and Sanctions
    • Political Organization in Foraging Societies
    • Characteristics of Leadership
    • Warfare and Violence in Foraging Societies
    • Conflict Resolution
    • The Eskimo Song Duel
    • Political Organization in Horticulturalist and Pastoralist Tribes
    • Sodalities
    • How Leaders Are Chosen
    • Village Headman
    • Big Man
    • Pastoralist Tribal Politics
    • Segmentary Lineage Systems
    • Complementary Opposition
    • Explaining Tribal Warfare
    • The Yanomamö and Protein Shortages
    • Biological Hypotheses of Tribal Warfare
    • Multidimensional Explanations of Tribal Warfare
    • Law and Conflict Resolution Among Tribes
    • Ordeals
    • Oaths and Oracles
    • Political Authority in Chiefdoms
    • Limits on Chiefly Power
    • A Case Study: The Trobriand Islands
    • A Case Study: Hawaii and Tahiti
    • The Evolution of Chiefdoms
    • Warfare
    • Law in Chiefdoms
    • Politics in Agricultural States
    • Law in Agricultural States
    • Mediation and Self-Help
    • A Case Study: Law in China
    • Warfare
    • The Collapse of Agricultural State Societies
    • Possible Reasons for Collapse
    • Political Organization in Industrial and Postindustrial States
    • Political Organization in Socialist States
    • Industrialism and State Bureaucracy
    • Law
    • Japanese Law
    • Warfare and Industrial Technology
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 13 • Religion and Aesthetics

    • Religion
    • Myths and Rituals
    • Rites of Passage
    • Religious Specialists
    • Religious Movements
    • Cognition and Religion
    • Aesthetics: Art and Music
    • Religion Among Foragers
    • The Dreamtime
    • Inuit Religion
    • Rites of Passage Among Foragers
    • Art, Music, and Religion Among Foragers
    • Religion Among Horticulturalists and Pastoralists
    • Animism and Shamanism in South America
    • Witchcraft and Sorcery
    • The Role of Witchcraft
    • The Role of Sorcery
    • Totemism
    • Ghost Lineage Members Among the Lugbara
    • Art and Music in Tribal Societies
    • Musical Traditions
    • Religion in Chiefdoms
    • A Case Study: Law and Religion in Polynesia
    • Shamanism in Chiefdoms
    • Human Sacrifice
    • Art, Architecture, and Music in Chiefdoms
    • Art and Architecture
    • Music
    • Religion in Agricultural States
    • Ecclesiastical Religions
    • Divine Rulers, Priests, and Religious Texts
    • Human Sacrifice
    • Universalistic Religions
    • Art, Architecture, and Music in Agricultural States
    • Religion and Secularization in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies
    • Religion in Socialist States
    • Religion in Japan
    • Fundamentalist Movements
    • Art and Music in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies
    • Art
    • Music
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 14 • Globalization, Culture, and Indigenous Societies

    • Globalization: A Contested Term
    • Globalization: Technological and Economic Trends
    • Globalization: General Theoretical Approaches
    • Modernization Theory
    • Modernization Theory and the Cold War
    • First, Second, and Third Worlds
    • Criticisms of Modernization Theory
    • Dependency Theory
    • Criticisms of Dependency Theory
    • World-System Analysis
    • Criticisms of World-System Analysis
    • Anthropological Analysis and Globalization
    • Globalization, Politics, and Culture
    • Globalization and Indigenous Peoples
    • Vanishing Foragers
    • The Ju/’hoansi San
    • The Mbuti
    • The Ik
    • Tribes in Transition
    • Native North American Horticulturalists
    • The Relocation of Native Americans
    • Native North American Indians in the Twenty-First Century
    • Native South American Horticulturalists
    • Recent Developments Among the Yanomamö
    • Pastoralist Tribes
    • Middle Eastern Pastoralists: The Bedouins
    • The Qashqa’i
    • East African Pastoralists and Globalization
    • Chiefdoms in Transition
    • The Hawaiian Islands
    • Forms of Resistance Among Indigenous Peoples
    • Revitalization Among Native Americans
    • The Ghost Dance
    • The Peyote Cult
    • Melanesia and New Guinea: The Cargo Cults
    • A Hawaiian Religious Renaissance
    • A Lost Opportunity?
    • Native American Knowledge
    • Preserving Indigenous Societies
    • Pro- and Anti-Globalization: An Anthropological Contribution
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 15 • Globalization, Colonialism, and Postcolonialism

    • Globalization and Colonialism
    • Latin America
    • Cortés (Cortez) and the Aztec Empire
    • Africa
    • Slave Trade
    • Colonization in Africa
    • The Caribbean
    • The Middle East and Asia
    • Colonialism in the Middle East
    • Asia
    • India, Myanmar (Burma), and Malaysia
    • China
    • The Dutch Empire
    • French Indochina
    • Thailand: An Independent Country
    • The Philippines
    • Consequences of Globalization and Colonialism
    • Demographic Change
    • Economic Change
    • Religious Change
    • Political Changes: Independence and Nationalist Movements
    • A Nationalist and Independence Movement in India
    • Explaining Revolution
    • Uneven Economic Development
    • Peripheral Postcolonial Countries
    • Withdrawal From the Global Economy
    • Ethnographic Studies
    • African Peasants: A Unique Phenomenon?
    • Social Structure in Postcolonial Societies
    • Latin American Social Relationships
    • African Social Relationships
    • Family and Social Structure in the Middle East
    • The Family
    • Marriage
    • Divorce
    • Social Structure and Family in India: Caste
    • Origins of the Caste System
    • Family and Marriage in South Asia
    • The Dowry
    • Patterns of Ethnicity
    • Ethnicity in Latin America
    • Ethnicity in Africa
    • Ethnicity in the Middle East and Asia
    • China and Ethnic Minorities
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 16 • Race and Ethnicity

    • Race, Racism, and Culture
    • Ancient Classification Systems
    • Modern Racism in Western Thought
    • Critiques of Scientific Racism
    • Race and Intelligence
    • Problems in Measuring Intelligence
    • The Cultural and Social Significance of Race
    • Ethnicity
    • Anthropological Perspectives on Ethnicity
    • The Primordialist Model
    • The Circumstantialist Model
    • Patterns of Ethnic Relations
    • Pluralism
    • Assimilation
    • Ethnic Violence
    • Racial and Ethnic Stratification
    • Ethnic Relations in the United States
    • WASP Dominance
    • Ethnic Challenges for U.S. Society
    • German and Irish Americans
    • Italian and Polish Americans
    • The Melting Pot: Assimilation or Pluralism?
    • African Americans
    • Postslavery and Segregation
    • The Civil Rights Movement
    • African Americans Today
    • Hispanic/Latino Americans
    • Puerto Rican Americans
    • Cuban Americans
    • Hispanic and Latino Americans Today
    • Asian and Arab Americans
    • Cultural Pluralism
    • Multiculturalism in the United States
    • Ethnonationalism
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Chapter 17 • Applied Anthropology

    • The Roles of the Applied Anthropologist
    • The Roles of the Applied Anthropologist in Planned Change
    • Applied Anthropology, Climate Change, and Sustainability
    • Medical Anthropology
    • Ethnomedicine
    • Ethnomedicine in Thailand
    • Ethnomedicine in East Africa
    • Chinese Acupuncture
    • Cultural Patterns and Epidemiology
    • Medical Anthropology and Mental Illness
    • What Is Abnormal?
    • Culture-Specific Disorders
    • Globalization and Mental Illness
    • Cultural Resource Management: Applied Archaeology
    • Preserving the Past
    • Cultural Resource Management in the United States
    • Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
    • Applied Archaeology: The Study of Garbage
    • Applied Anthropology and Human Rights
    • Cultural Relativism and Human Rights
    • Relativism Reconsidered
    • Ethical Relativism
    • A Resolution to the Problem of Relativism
    • The Problem of Intervention
    • Universal Human Rights
    • The Role of Applied Anthropology in Human Rights
    • Summary and Review of Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms

Glossary

References

Index

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