College Physics: A Strategic Approach,4th Edition

College Physics: A Strategic Approach 4th Edition

By: Randall D Knight Brian Jones Stuart Field
About this Book
ISBN-10: 0134609034
/ ISBN-13: 9780134644226
Edition: 4th Edition
Format: MS Word /or PDF
Published By: Pearson

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Part I Force and Motion

    • 1 Representing Motion
    • 1.1 Motion: A First Look
    • Types of Motion
    • Making a Motion Diagram
    • 1.2 Models and Modeling
    • The Particle Model
    • 1.3 Position and Time: Putting Numbers on Nature
    • Position and Coordinate Systems
    • Time
    • Changes in Position: Displacement
    • Changes in Time
    • 1.4 Velocity
    • The “Per” in Miles Per Hour
    • 1.5 A Sense of Scale: Significant Figures, Scientific Notation, and Units
    • Measurements and Significant Figures
    • Scientific Notation
    • Units
    • Using Prefixes
    • Unit Conversions Between Measurement Systems
    • Estimation
    • 1.6 Vectors and Motion: A First Look
    • Displacement Vectors
    • Vector Addition
    • Vectors and Trigonometry
    • Velocity Vectors
    • 1.7 Where Do We Go from Here?
    • Summary
    • Important Concepts
    • Motion Diagrams
    • Scalars and Vectors
    • Scalar
    • Velocity vectors
    • Describing Motion
    • Position
    • Time
    • Velocity
    • Units
    • Applications
    • Working with Numbers
    • Significant figures
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Growth Speed
    • 2 Motion in One Dimension
    • 2.1 Describing Motion
    • Representing Position
    • Representing Velocity
    • From Position to Velocity
    • From Velocity to Position
    • 2.2 Uniform Motion
    • Equations of Uniform Motion
    • Mathematical Relationships
    • A Second Way to Find Position from Velocity
    • 2.3 Instantaneous Velocity
    • 2.4 Acceleration
    • From Velocity to Acceleration
    • The Sign of the Acceleration
    • 2.5 Motion with Constant Acceleration
    • Constant-Acceleration Equations
    • 2.6 Solving One-Dimensional Motion Problems
    • The Pictorial Representation
    • The Visual Overview
    • Problem-Solving Approach for Motion with Constant Acceleration
    • 2.7 Free Fall
    • Summary
    • General Strategies
    • Problem-Solving Approach
    • Strategize
    • Prepare
    • Solve
    • Assess
    • Visual Overview
    • Important Concepts
    • Velocity
    • Acceleration
    • Applications
    • Uniform Motion
    • Motion with Constant Acceleration
    • Free Fall
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • 3 Vectors and Motion in Two Dimensions
    • 3.1 Using Vectors
    • Vector Addition
    • Multiplication by a Scalar
    • Vector Subtraction
    • 3.2 Coordinate Systems and Vector Components
    • Coordinate Systems
    • Component Vectors
    • Components
    • Working with Components
    • Tilted Axes
    • 3.3 Motion on a Ramp
    • Constant-Velocity Motion on a Ramp
    • Accelerated Motion on a Ramp
    • 3.4 Motion in Two Dimensions
    • Acceleration in Two Dimensions
    • 3.5 Projectile Motion
    • Analyzing Projectile Motion
    • 3.6 Projectile Motion: Solving Problems
    • The Range of a Projectile
    • 3.7 Circular Motion
    • 3.8 Relative Motion
    • Relative Velocity
    • What Comes Next: Forces
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Projectile Motion
    • Circular Motion
    • Important Concepts
    • Vectors and Components
    • The Acceleration Vector
    • Applications
    • Motion on a ramp
    • Relative motion
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Riding the Water Slide
    • 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    • 4.1 Motion and Forces
    • What Causes Motion?
    • Forces
    • Force Vectors
    • Combining Forces
    • 4.2 A Short Catalog of Forces
    • Weight
    • Spring Force
    • Tension Force
    • Normal Force
    • Friction
    • Drag
    • Thrust
    • Electric and Magnetic Forces
    • 4.3 Identifying Forces
    • 4.4 What Do Forces Do?
    • 4.5 Newton’s Second Law
    • The Unit of Force
    • 4.6 Free-Body Diagrams
    • 4.7 Newton’s Third Law
    • Interacting Objects
    • Reasoning with Newton’s Third Law
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Newton’s First Law
    • Newton’s Second Law
    • Newton’s Third Law
    • Important Concepts
    • Applications
    • Identifying Forces
    • Free-Body Diagrams
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • A Simple Solution for a Stuck Car
    • 5 Applying Newton’s Laws
    • 5.1 Equilibrium
    • Static Equilibrium
    • Dynamic Equilibrium
    • 5.2 Dynamics and Newton’s Second Law
    • 5.3 Mass and Weight
    • Apparent Weight
    • Weightlessness
    • 5.4 Normal Forces
    • 5.5 Friction
    • Static Friction
    • Kinetic Friction
    • Rolling Friction
    • Working with Friction Forces
    • Causes of Friction
    • 5.6 Drag
    • Reynolds Number
    • Drag at High Reynolds Number
    • Terminal Speed
    • Drag at Low Reynolds Number
    • Life at Low Reynolds Number (BIO)
    • Catalog of Forces Revisited
    • 5.7 Interacting Objects
    • Objects in Contact
    • 5.8 Ropes and Pulleys
    • Pulleys
    • Summary
    • General Strategy
    • Equilibrium Problems
    • Strategize
    • Prepare
    • Solve
    • Assess
    • Dynamics Problems
    • Strategize
    • Prepare
    • Solve
    • Assess
    • Important Concepts
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Sliding on the Ice
    • 6 Circular Motion, Orbits, and Gravity
    • 6.1 Uniform Circular Motion
    • Velocity and Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion
    • Period, Frequency, and Speed
    • 6.2 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
    • Maximum Walking Speed (BIO)
    • 6.3 Apparent Forces in Circular Motion
    • Centrifugal Force?
    • Apparent Weight in Circular Motion
    • Centrifuges (BIO)
    • 6.4 Circular Orbits and Weightlessness
    • Orbital Motion
    • Weightlessness in Orbit
    • The Orbit of the Moon
    • 6.5 Newton’s Law of Gravity
    • Gravity Obeys an Inverse-Square Law
    • Gravity on Other Worlds
    • 6.6 Gravity and Orbits
    • Gravity on a Grand Scale
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Uniform Circular Motion
    • Universal Gravitation
    • Important Concepts
    • Describing Circular Motion
    • Planetary Gravity
    • Applications
    • Apparent Weight and Weightlessness
    • Orbital Motion
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Orbiting the Moon
    • 7 Rotational Motion
    • 7.1 Describing Circular and Rotational Motion
    • Angular Position
    • Angular Displacement and Angular Velocity
    • Angular-Position and Angular-Velocity Graphs
    • Relating Speed and Angular Speed
    • 7.2 The Rotation of a Rigid Body
    • Angular Acceleration
    • Graphs for Rotational Motion with Constant Angular Acceleration
    • Tangential Acceleration
    • 7.3 Torque
    • Net Torque
    • 7.4 Gravitational Torque and the Center of Gravity
    • Calculating the Position of the Center of Gravity
    • 7.5 Rotational Dynamics and Moment of Inertia
    • Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
    • Interpreting the Moment of Inertia
    • The Moments of Inertia of Common Shapes
    • 7.6 Using Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
    • Constraints Due to Ropes and Pulleys
    • 7.7 Rolling Motion
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Newton’s Second Law for Rotational Motion
    • Important Concepts
    • Describing Circular Motion
    • Relating Linear and Circular Motion Quantities
    • Torque
    • Center of Gravity
    • Applications
    • Moments of Inertia of Common Shapes
    • Rotation about a Fixed Axis
    • Rolling Motion
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • The Bunchberry (BIO)
    • The Illusion of Flight
    • 8 Equilibrium and Elasticity
    • 8.1 Torque and Static Equilibrium
    • Choosing the Pivot Point
    • 8.2 Stability and Balance
    • Stability and Balance of the Human Body (BIO)
    • 8.3 Springs and Hooke’s Law
    • 8.4 Stretching and Compressing Materials
    • Beyond the Elastic Limit
    • Elasticity of Biological Materials (BIO)
    • 8.5 Forces and Torques in the Body (BIO)
    • Mechanical Advantage
    • Strength Versus Range of Motion and Speed
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Static Equilibrium
    • Springs and Hooke’s Law
    • Important Concepts
    • Stability
    • Elastic materials and Young’s modulus
    • Applications
    • Forces and torques in the body
    • The elastic limit and beyond
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Elasticity of a Ligament (BIO)
    • Part I Summary Force and Motion
    • Knowledge Structure I Force and Motion
    • Basic Goals
    • Cross-Cutting Concepts
    • General Principles
    • Kinematics
    • Dynamics
    • Rigid bodies
    • Torque and rotational dynamics
    • Rotation about a fixed axis
    • Part I Problems
    • Animal Athletes (BIO)
    • Sticky Liquids (BIO)
    • Pulling Out of a Dive (BIO)
    • Bending Beams
    • Additional Integrated Problems

Part II Conservation Laws

    • 9 Momentum
    • 9.1 Impulse
    • 9.2 Momentum and the Impulse-Momentum Theorem
    • Momentum
    • The Impulse-Momentum Theorem
    • Total Momentum
    • 9.3 Solving Impulse and Momentum Problems
    • The Impulse Approximation
    • 9.4 Conservation of Momentum
    • Law of Conservation of Momentum
    • It Depends on the System
    • Explosions
    • 9.5 Inelastic Collisions
    • 9.6 Momentum and Collisions in Two Dimensions
    • 9.7 Angular Momentum
    • Conservation of Angular Momentum
    • Varying Moment of Inertia
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Conservation Laws
    • Conservation of momentum
    • Conservation of angular momentum
    • Solving Momentum Conservation Problems
    • Strategize
    • Prepare
    • Solve
    • Assess
    • Important Concepts
    • Momentum
    • Impulse
    • Angular momentum
    • System
    • Isolated system
    • Before-and-after visual overview
    • Applications
    • Collisions
    • Explosions
    • Two dimensions
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Hitting a Golf Ball
    • Analyzing a Dance Move (BIO) (INT)
    • 10 Energy and Work
    • 10.1 The Basic Energy Model
    • Systems and Forms of Energy
    • Energy Transformations
    • Energy Transfers and Work
    • The Law of Conservation of Energy
    • 10.2 Work
    • Work by Forces at an Angle to the Displacement
    • Forces That Do No Work
    • 10.3 Kinetic Energy
    • Translational Kinetic Energy
    • Rotational Kinetic Energy
    • 10.4 Potential Energy
    • Gravitational Potential Energy
    • Elastic Potential Energy
    • 10.5 Thermal Energy
    • 10.6 Conservation of Energy
    • Using the Law of Conservation of Energy
    • 10.7 Energy Diagrams
    • Interpreting Energy Diagrams
    • Equilibrium Positions
    • 10.8 Molecular Bonds and Chemical Energy
    • Chemical Reactions
    • Reaction Rates and Catalysts
    • Chemical Energy
    • 10.9 Energy in Collisions
    • Elastic Collisions
    • 10.10 Power
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Basic Energy Model
    • Conservation of Energy
    • Solving Energy Transfer and Energy Conservation Problems
    • Important Concepts
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Tennis Ball Testing
    • Work and Power in Cycling
    • 11 Using Energy
    • 11.1 Transforming Energy
    • Efficiency
    • 11.2 Energy in the Body (BIO)
    • Getting Energy from Food: Energy Inputs
    • Using Energy in the Body: Energy Outputs
    • Efficiency of the Human Body
    • Energy Storage
    • Energy and Locomotion
    • 11.3 Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat
    • Relating Thermal Energy and Temperature
    • Temperature Scales
    • What Is Heat?
    • An Atomic Model of Heat
    • 11.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    • Energy-Transfer Diagrams
    • 11.5 Heat Engines
    • 11.6 Heat Pumps
    • 11.7 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • Reversible and Irreversible Processes
    • Thermal Energy Spreads
    • Entropy
    • Reasoning with Entropy
    • 11.8 Systems, Energy, and Entropy
    • The Conservation of Energy and Energy Conservation
    • Entropy and Life (BIO)
    • Entropy, Free Energy, and Spontaneity
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Energy and Efficiency
    • Entropy and Irreversibility
    • The Laws of Thermodynamics
    • Important Concepts
    • Applications
    • Efficiencies
    • Energy In the body
    • Power plants
    • Temperature scales
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Kangaroo Locomotion (BIO)
    • Animal Power
    • Part II Summary Conservation Laws
    • Knowledge Structure II Conservation Laws
    • Basic Goals
    • Cross-Cutting Concepts
    • General Principles
    • Basic Problem-Solving Approach
    • Momentum and impulse
    • Basic model of energy
    • Limitations on energy transfers and transformations
    • Momentum
    • Energy
    • Relating Force and Momentum
    • Work-Energy Equation
    • Power
    • Part II Problems
    • Big Air
    • Testing Tennis Balls
    • Squid Propulsion (BIO)
    • Teeing Off
    • Additional Integrated Problems

Part III Properties of Matter

    • 12 Thermal Properties of Matter
    • 12.1 The Atomic Model of Matter
    • Atomic Mass and Atomic Mass Number
    • The Definition of the Mole
    • Volume
    • 12.2 The Atomic Model of an Ideal Gas
    • Molecular Speeds and Temperature
    • Pressure
    • The Ideal-Gas Law
    • 12.3 Ideal-Gas Processes
    • pV Diagrams
    • Constant-Volume Processes
    • Constant-Pressure Processes
    • Constant-Temperature Processes
    • Thermodynamics of Ideal-Gas Processes
    • Adiabatic Processes
    • 12.4 Thermal Expansion
    • 12.5 Specific Heat and Heat of Transformation
    • Specific Heat
    • Phase Changes
    • Heat of Transformation
    • Evaporation
    • 12.6 Calorimetry
    • 12.7 Specific Heats of Gases
    • 12.8 Heat Transfer
    • Conduction
    • Convection
    • Radiation
    • 12.9 Diffusion
    • Fick’s Law
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Atomic Model
    • Atomic Model of a Gas
    • Ideal-Gas Law
    • Important Concepts
    • Effects of Heat Transfer
    • Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
    • Diffusion
    • Applications
    • Thermal Expansion
    • Calorimetry
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Thermal Properties of the Oceans
    • The Work of Breathing
    • 13 Fluids
    • 13.1 Fluids and Density
    • Density
    • 13.2 Pressure
    • Pressure in Liquids
    • Atmospheric Pressure
    • Measuring Atmospheric Pressure
    • Pressure Units
    • 13.3 Buoyancy
    • Float or Sink?
    • Boats and Balloons
    • Buoyancy and Bodies (BIO)
    • 13.4 Fluids in Motion
    • The Role of Viscosity
    • The Equation of Continuity
    • Representing Fluid Flow: Streamlines and Fluid Elements
    • 13.5 Fluid Dynamics
    • Applications of the Bernoulli Effect
    • Bernoulli’s Equation
    • 13.6 Viscosity and Poiseuille’s Equation
    • Poiseuille’s Equation
    • 13.7 The Circulatory System (BIO)
    • Blood Pressure
    • The Arteries and Capillaries
    • The Veins
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Fluid Statics
    • Gases
    • Liquids
    • Fluid Dynamics
    • Equation of Continuity
    • Bernoulli’s Equation
    • Poiseuille’s Equation
    • Important Concepts
    • Density
    • Pressure
    • Viscosity
    • Representing Fluid Flow
    • Applications
    • Buoyancy
    • Archimedes’ Principle
    • Barometers
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Blood Pressure and Blood Flow (BIO)
    • Part III Summary Properties of Matter
    • Knowledge Structure III Properties of Matter
    • Basic Goals
    • Cross-Cutting Concepts
    • Flows of Energy and Matter
    • General Principles
    • Phases of Matter
    • Fluids and Pressure
    • Ideal-Gas Processes
    • Heat and Heat Transfer
    • Fluid Statics
    • Fluid Flow
    • Part III Problems
    • Keeping Your Cool (BIO)
    • Weather Balloons
    • Passenger Balloons
    • Additional Integrated Problems

Part IV Oscillations and Waves

    • 14 Oscillations
    • 14.1 Equilibrium and Oscillation
    • Frequency and Period
    • Simple Harmonic Motion
    • 14.2 Linear Restoring Forces and SHM
    • Horizontal Motion of a Mass on a Spring
    • Vertical Motion of a Mass on a Spring
    • The Pendulum
    • 14.3 Describing Simple Harmonic Motion
    • Connecting SHM to Uniform Circular Motion
    • 14.4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
    • Finding the Frequency for Simple Harmonic Motion
    • 14.5 Pendulum Motion
    • Physical Pendulums and Locomotion
    • 14.6 Damped Oscillations
    • 14.7 Driven Oscillations and Resonance
    • Resonance and Hearing (BIO)
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Frequency and Period
    • Energy
    • Important Concepts
    • Oscillation
    • Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
    • Applications
    • Damping
    • Resonance
    • Physical pendulum
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • The Spring in Your Step (BIO)
    • Web Spiders and Oscillations (BIO)
    • 15 Traveling Waves and Sound
    • 15.1 The Wave Model
    • Mechanical Waves
    • Electromagnetic and Matter Waves
    • Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
    • 15.2 Traveling Waves
    • Waves on a String
    • Sound Waves
    • Wave Speed Is a Property of the Medium
    • 15.3 Graphical and Mathematical Descriptions of Waves
    • Snapshot and History Graphs
    • The Mathematical Description of Sinusoidal Waves
    • The Fundamental Relationship for Sinusoidal Waves
    • 15.4 Sound and Light Waves
    • Sound Waves
    • Light and Other Electromagnetic Waves
    • 15.5 Energy and Intensity
    • Circular, Spherical, and Plane Waves
    • Power, Energy, and Intensity
    • 15.6 Loudness of Sound
    • The Decibel Scale
    • 15.7 The Doppler Effect and Shock Waves
    • Sound Waves from a Moving Source
    • A Stationary Source and a Moving Observer
    • The Doppler Effect for Light Waves
    • Frequency Shift on Reflection from a Moving Object
    • Shock Waves
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • The Wave Model
    • Mechanical Waves
    • Electromagnetic Waves
    • Important Concepts
    • Graphical Representation of Waves
    • Mathematical Representation of Waves
    • Sinusoidal waves
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Echolocation (BIO)
    • 16 Superposition and Standing Waves
    • 16.1 The Principle of Superposition
    • Constructive and Destructive Interference
    • 16.2 Standing Waves
    • Superposition Creates a Standing Wave
    • Nodes and Antinodes
    • 16.3 Standing Waves on a String
    • Reflections
    • Creating a Standing Wave
    • The Fundamental Frequency and Higher Harmonics
    • Stringed Musical Instruments
    • Standing Electromagnetic Waves
    • 16.4 Standing Sound Waves
    • Wind Instruments
    • 16.5 Speech and Hearing (BIO)
    • The Frequency Spectrum
    • Vowels and Formants
    • 16.6 The Interference of Waves from Two Sources
    • Interference Along a Line
    • Interference of Spherical Waves
    • 16.7 Beats
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Principle of Superposition
    • Interference
    • Important Concepts
    • Standing Waves
    • Applications
    • Beats
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Harmonics and Harmony
    • Part IV Summary Oscillations and Waves
    • Knowledge Structure IV
    • Basic Goals
    • Cross-Cutting Consepts
    • General Principles
    • Simple harmonic motion
    • Traveling waves
    • Superposition and Interference
    • Standing Waves
    • Part IV Problems
    • Deep-Water Waves
    • Attenuation of Ultrasound (BIO)
    • Measuring the Speed of Sound
    • In the Swing
    • Additional Integrated Problems

Part V Optics

    • 17 Wave Optics
    • 17.1 What Is Light?
    • The Propagation of Light Waves
    • Light Is an Electromagnetic Wave
    • The Index of Refraction
    • 17.2 The Interference of Light
    • Young’s Double-Slit Experiment
    • Analyzing Double-Slit Interference
    • 17.3 The Diffraction Grating
    • Spectroscopy
    • Reflection Gratings
    • 17.4 Thin-Film Interference
    • Interference of Reflected Light Waves
    • Structural Color from Thin Films
    • 17.5 Single-Slit Diffraction
    • Huygens’ Principle
    • Analyzing Single-Slit Diffraction
    • The Width of a Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern
    • 17.6 Circular-Aperture Diffraction
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • The Wave Model
    • Huygens’ principle
    • Important Concepts
    • Diffraction
    • Applications
    • Diffraction from a Single Slit
    • Interference from Multiple Slits
    • Double Slit
    • Diffraction Grating
    • Circular Aperture
    • Thin-Film Interference
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • The Blue Morpho Butterfly (BIO)
    • 18 Ray Optics
    • 18.1 The Ray Model of Light
    • Sources of Light Rays
    • Ray Diagrams
    • Seeing Objects
    • Shadows
    • 18.2 Reflection
    • Diffuse Reflection
    • The Plane Mirror
    • 18.3 Refraction
    • Examples of Refraction
    • Total Internal Reflection
    • Fiber Optics
    • 18.4 Image Formation by Refraction
    • 18.5 Thin Lenses: Ray Tracing
    • Converging Lenses
    • Real Images
    • Magnification
    • Virtual Images
    • Diverging Lenses
    • 18.6 Image Formation with Spherical Mirrors
    • Converging Mirrors
    • Diverging Mirrors
    • 18.7 The Thin-Lens Equation
    • Sign Conventions for Lenses and Mirrors
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Reflection
    • Refraction
    • Important Concepts
    • The ray model of light
    • Image formation
    • Applications
    • Ray tracing for lenses
    • Ray tracing for mirrors
    • The thin-lens equation
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Mirages
    • 19 Optical Instruments
    • 19.1 The Camera
    • 19.2 The Human Eye (BIO)
    • Refractive Power
    • The Optical System of the Eye
    • Focusing and Accommodation
    • Presbyopia
    • Myopia and Hyperopia
    • Other Types of Vision Correction and Vision Enhancement
    • 19.3 The Magnifier
    • Angular Size and Apparent Size
    • Using a Magnifier
    • 19.4 The Microscope
    • 19.5 The Telescope
    • 19.6 Color and Dispersion
    • Color
    • Dispersion
    • Rainbows
    • Colored Filters and Colored Objects
    • 19.7 Resolution of Optical Instruments
    • Aberrations
    • Correcting Aberrations
    • Resolution and the Wave Nature of Light
    • The Resolution of a Microscope
    • Summary
    • Important Concepts
    • Lenses in combination
    • Resolution of optical instruments
    • Color and dispersion
    • Angular and apparent size
    • Applications
    • The camera and the eye
    • The telescope
    • The magnifier
    • The microscope
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Surgical Vision Correction (BIO)
    • Part V Summary Optics
    • Knowledge Structure V
    • Basic Goals
    • Cross-Cutting Concepts: The Nature of Light
    • General Principles: Models of Light
    • Wave model
    • The resolution of optical instruments
    • Ray model
    • Image formation by lenses and mirrors
    • Part V Problems
    • Horse Sense (BIO)
    • Mirror Eyes (BIO)
    • Pupil Size (BIO)
    • Additional Integrated Problems

Part VI Electricity and Magnetism

    • 20 Electric Fields and Forces
    • 20.1 Charges and Forces
    • Experimenting with Charges
    • Visualizing Charge
    • Insulators and Conductors
    • Polarization
    • 20.2 Charges, Atoms, and Molecules
    • An Atomic View of Charging
    • Charge Conservation
    • Insulators and Conductors
    • Electric Dipoles
    • Hydrogen Bonding
    • 20.3 Coulomb’s Law
    • Using Coulomb’s Law
    • 20.4 The Concept of the Electric Field
    • The Electric Field Is Real
    • The Field Model
    • The Electric Field of a Point Charge
    • 20.5 The Electric Field of Multiple Charges
    • Uniform Electric Fields
    • Electric Field Lines
    • The Electric Field of the Heart (BIO)
    • 20.6 Conductors and Electric Fields
    • 20.7 Forces and Torques in Electric Fields
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Charge
    • Coulomb’s Law
    • Important Concepts
    • The Electric Field
    • Visualizing the electric field
    • Applications
    • Electric fields: important cases
    • Conductors in electric fields
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Flow Cytometry (BIO)
    • 21 Electric Potential
    • 21.1 Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential
    • Electric Potential Energy
    • Electric Potential
    • 21.2 Sources of Electric Potential
    • Measuring Electric Potential
    • Is High Voltage Dangerous?
    • 21.3 Electric Potential and Conservation of Energy
    • The Electron Volt
    • 21.4 Calculating the Electric Potential
    • The Electric Potential Inside a Parallel-Plate Capacitor
    • The Electric Potential of a Point Charge
    • The Electric Potential of a Charged Sphere
    • Ionization Energy
    • The Electric Potential of Many Charges
    • 21.5 Connecting Potential and Field
    • A Conductor in Electrostatic Equilibrium
    • 21.6 The Electrocardiogram (BIO)
    • 21.7 Capacitance and Capacitors
    • Charging a Capacitor
    • The Parallel-Plate Capacitor
    • Dielectrics and Capacitors
    • 21.8 Energy and Capacitors
    • The Energy in the Electric Field
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Electric Potential and Potential Energy
    • Sources of Potential
    • Connecting potential and field
    • Important Concepts
    • Graphical representations of the potential
    • Applications
    • Capacitors and dielectrics
    • Parallel-plate capacitor
    • Units
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • A Lightning Strike
    • 22 Current and Resistance
    • 22.1 A Model of Current
    • Creating a Current
    • Conservation of Current
    • 22.2 Defining and Describing Current
    • Definition of Current
    • Conservation of Current at a Junction
    • 22.3 Batteries and emf
    • 22.4 Connecting Potential and Current
    • Resistance
    • Resistivity
    • Electrical Measurements of Physical Properties
    • 22.5 Ohm’s Law and Resistor Circuits
    • Resistors
    • Analyzing a Simple Circuit
    • 22.6 Energy and Power
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Batteries, Resistors, and Current
    • Important Concepts
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Lightbulb Failure
    • 23 Circuits
    • 23.1 Circuit Elements and Diagrams
    • 23.2 Kirchhoff’s Laws
    • 23.3 Series and Parallel Circuits
    • Series Resistors
    • Parallel Resistors
    • 23.4 Measuring Voltage and Current
    • 23.5 More Complex Circuits
    • 23.6 Capacitors in Parallel and Series
    • 23.7 RC Circuits
    • Discharging a Capacitor
    • Charging a Capacitor
    • 23.8 Electricity in the Nervous System (BIO)
    • The Electrical Nature of Nerve Cells
    • The Action Potential
    • The Propagation of Nerve Impulses
    • Increasing Nerve-Impulse Speed by Insulation
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Analyzing Circuits
    • Important Concepts
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • The Defibrillator (BIO)
    • Electric Fish (BIO) (INT)
    • 24 Magnetic Fields and Forces
    • 24.1 Magnetism
    • 24.2 The Magnetic Field
    • Measuring the Magnetic Field
    • Magnetic Field Vectors and Field Lines
    • The Magnetic Field of the Earth
    • 24.3 Electric Currents Also Create Magnetic Fields
    • The Magnetic Field of a Straight, Current-Carrying Wire
    • The Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
    • The Magnetic Field of a Solenoid
    • 24.4 Calculating the Magnetic Field Due to a Current
    • Wires
    • Magnetic Fields from More Than One Source
    • Current Loops
    • Solenoids
    • 24.5 Magnetic Fields Exert Forces on Moving Charges
    • Paths of Charged Particles in Magnetic Fields
    • The Cyclotron
    • Electromagnetic Flowmeters
    • 24.6 Magnetic Fields Exert Forces on Currents
    • The Form of the Magnetic Force on a Current
    • Forces Between Currents
    • Forces Between Current Loops
    • 24.7 Magnetic Fields Exert Torques on Dipoles
    • A Current Loop in a Uniform Field
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Electric Motors
    • 24.8 Magnets and Magnetic Materials
    • Ferromagnetism
    • Induced Magnetic Moments
    • Electromagnets
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Sources of Magnetism
    • Consequences of Magnetism
    • Important Concepts
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Magnetic Forces and Torques
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • The Velocity Selector (INT)
    • Ocean Potentials (INT)
    • The Mass Spectrometer
    • 25 EM Induction and EM Waves
    • 25.1 Induced Currents
    • 25.2 Motional emf
    • Induced Current in a Circuit
    • Energy Considerations
    • Generators
    • 25.3 Magnetic Flux and Lenz’s Law
    • Magnetic Flux
    • Lenz’s Law
    • 25.4 Faraday’s Law
    • Eddy Currents
    • 25.5 Electromagnetic Waves
    • Induced Fields
    • Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
    • Polarization
    • Energy of Electromagnetic Waves
    • Polarizers and Changing Polarization
    • 25.6 The Photon Model of Electromagnetic Waves
    • 25.7 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    • Radio Waves and Microwaves
    • Infrared, Visible Light, and Ultraviolet
    • Color Vision
    • X Rays and Gamma Rays
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Electromagnetic Induction
    • Electromagnetic Waves
    • Important Concepts
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Electromagnetic Wave Penetration (BIO)
    • The Metal Detector
    • 26 AC Electricity
    • 26.1 Alternating Current
    • Resistor Circuits
    • AC Power in Resistors
    • 26.2 AC Electricity and Transformers
    • Transformer Operation
    • Power Transmission
    • 26.3 Household Electricity
    • Electric Outlets Are Grounded Parallel Circuits
    • Kilowatt Hours
    • 26.4 Biological Effects and Electrical Safety (BIO)
    • GFI Circuits
    • 26.5 Capacitor Circuits
    • Capacitive Reactance
    • 26.6 Inductors and Inductor Circuits
    • Inductance
    • Inductor Circuits
    • Inductive Reactance
    • 26.7 Oscillation Circuits
    • LC Circuits
    • RLC Circuits
    • Summary
    • Important Concepts
    • AC circuits
    • Power in AC resistor circuits
    • Circuit elements used in AC circuits
    • Electrical safety and biological effects
    • Applications
    • Transformers
    • LC and RLC circuits
    • The driven RLC circuit
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • Section 26.1 Alternating Current
    • Section 26.2 AC Electricity and Transformers
    • Section 26.3 Household Electricity
    • Section 26.4 Biological Effects and Electrical Safety
    • Section 26.5 Capacitor Circuits
    • Section 26.6 Inductors and Inductor Circuits
    • Section 26.7 Oscillation Circuits
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Cell Membrane Capacitance (BIO)
    • Halogen Bulbs
    • Part VI Summary Electricity and Magnetism
    • Knowledge Structure VI
    • Basic Goals
    • Cross-Cutting Concepts
    • General Principles
    • Electric fields and forces
    • Electric potential
    • Magnetic fields
    • Electromagnetic waves
    • Current and circuits
    • Part VI Problems
    • Taking an X Ray (BIO)
    • Electric Cars
    • Wireless Power Transmission
    • Additional Integrated Problems

Part VII Modern Physics

    • 27 Relativity
    • 27.1 Relativity: What’s It All About?
    • What’s Special, and What’s Relative, About Special Relativity?
    • 27.2 Galilean Relativity
    • Reference Frames
    • Inertial Reference Frames
    • The Galilean Velocity Transformation
    • 27.3 Einstein’s Principle of Relativity
    • The Constancy of the Speed of Light
    • How Can This Be?
    • 27.4 Events and Measurements
    • Events
    • Measurements
    • Clock Synchronization
    • Events and Observations
    • Simultaneity
    • 27.5 The Relativity of Simultaneity
    • 27.6 Time Dilation
    • Proper Time
    • The Evidence from Cosmic Rays
    • The Twin Paradox
    • 27.7 Length Contraction
    • The Binomial Approximation
    • 27.8 Velocities of Objects in Special Relativity
    • 27.9 Relativistic Momentum
    • The Cosmic Speed Limit
    • 27.10 Relativistic Energy
    • The Equivalence of Mass and Energy
    • Conservation of Energy
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Principle of Relativity
    • Important Concepts
    • Time
    • Momentum
    • Simultaneity
    • Space
    • Energy
    • Mass-energy equivalence
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Pion Therapy BIO
    • 28 Quantum Physics
    • 28.1 X Rays and X-Ray Diffraction
    • X-Ray Images (BIO)
    • X-Ray Diffraction
    • 28.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    • Characteristics of the Photoelectric Effect
    • Understanding the Photoelectric Effect
    • Einstein’s Explanation
    • Einstein’s Postulates and the Photoelectric Effect
    • 28.3 Photons
    • The Photon Rate
    • Detecting Photons
    • 28.4 Matter Waves
    • The Interference and Diffraction of Matter
    • The Electron Microscope
    • 28.5 Energy Is Quantized
    • 28.6 Energy Levels and Quantum Jumps
    • Energy-Level Diagrams
    • 28.7 The Uncertainty Principle
    • 28.8 Applications and Implications of Quantum Theory
    • Tunneling and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
    • Wave–Particle Duality
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • Important Concepts
    • Photoelectric effect
    • X-ray diffraction
    • Energy levels and quantum jumps
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Compton Scattering
    • Electron Diffraction
    • Collisional Excitation
    • 29 Atoms and Molecules
    • 29.1 Spectroscopy
    • 29.2 Atoms
    • The First Nuclear Physics Experiment
    • Using the Nuclear Model
    • 29.3 Bohr’s Model of Atomic Quantization
    • 29.4 The Bohr Hydrogen Atom
    • The Stationary States of the Hydrogen Atom
    • Hydrogen Atom Energy Levels
    • The Hydrogen Spectrum
    • 29.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Hydrogen Atom
    • Energy and Angular Momentum Are Quantized
    • The Electron Spin
    • 29.6 Multi-electron Atoms
    • The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    • The Periodic Table of the Elements
    • 29.7 Excited States and Spectra
    • Excitation by Absorption
    • Collisional Excitation
    • Emission Spectra
    • X Rays
    • 29.8 Molecules
    • 29.9 Stimulated Emission and Lasers
    • Lasers
    • Lasers in Medicine
    • Summary
    • Important Concepts
    • The Structure of an Atom
    • The Bohr Atom
    • The Hydrogen Atom
    • Applications
    • Atomic emission spectra
    • Lasers
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Light-Emitting Diodes
    • The Spectrum of Singly Ionized Helium
    • Muonic Hydrogen
    • 30 Nuclear Physics
    • 30.1 Nuclear Structure
    • Isotopes
    • Atomic Mass
    • 30.2 Nuclear Stability
    • Binding Energy
    • 30.3 Forces and Energy in the Nucleus
    • Low-Z Nuclei
    • High-Z Nuclei
    • 30.4 Radiation and Radioactivity
    • Alpha Decay
    • Beta Decay
    • Gamma Decay
    • Decay Series
    • Nuclear Radiation Is a Form of Ionizing Radiation (BIO)
    • 30.5 Nuclear Decay and Half-Lives
    • Activity
    • Radioactive Dating
    • 30.6 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics (BIO)
    • Radiation Dose
    • Sources of Radiation and Its Effects
    • Nuclear Medicine
    • Nuclear Imaging
    • Positron-Emission Tomography
    • 30.7 The Ultimate Building Blocks of Matter
    • Antiparticles
    • Neutrinos
    • Quarks
    • Fundamental Particles
    • Summary
    • General Principles
    • The Nucleus
    • Nuclear Stability
    • Important Concepts
    • Applications
    • Questions
    • Conceptual Questions
    • Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Problems
    • General Problems
    • MCAT-Style Passage Problems
    • Plutonium-Powered Exploration (BIO)
    • Nuclear Fission
    • Part VII Summary Modern Physics
    • Knowledge Structure VII
    • Basic Goals
    • Cross-Cutting Concepts
    • The nature of matter
    • Quantum states of electrons, neutrons, and protons
    • General Principles
    • Relativity
    • Quantum physics
    • Properties of atoms
    • Properties of nuclei
    • Part VII Problems
    • Splitting the Atom
    • Detecting and Deciphering Radiation
    • Additional Integrated Problems

Appendix A Mathematics Review

    • Algebra
    • Geometry and Trigonometry
    • Expansions and Approximations

Appendix B Periodic Table of Elements

Appendix C Atomic and Nuclear Data

Answers

    • Chapter 1
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 2
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 3
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 4
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 5
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 6
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 7
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 8
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Part I Problems
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 9
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 10
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 11
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Part II Problems
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 12
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 13
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Part III Problems
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 14
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 15
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 16
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Part IV Problems
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 17
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 18
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 19
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Part V Problems
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 20
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 21
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 22
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 23
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 24
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 25
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 26
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Part VI Problems
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 27
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 28
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 29
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Chapter 30
    • Answers to odd-numbered multiple-choice questions
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems
    • Part VII Problems
    • Answers to odd-numbered problems

Credits

    • FM
    • Part I Opener
    • Chapter 1
    • Chapter 2
    • Chapter 3
    • Chapter 4
    • Chapter 5
    • Chapter 6
    • Chapter 7
    • Chapter 8
    • Part I Summary
    • Part II Opener
    • Chapter 9
    • Chapter 10
    • Chapter 11
    • Part II Summary
    • Part III Opener
    • Chapter 12
    • Chapter 13
    • Part III Summary
    • Part IV Opener
    • Chapter 14
    • Chapter 15
    • Chapter 16
    • Part IV Summary
    • Part V Opener
    • Chapter 17
    • Chapter 18
    • Chapter 19
    • Part V Summary
    • Part VI Opener
    • Chapter 20
    • Chapter 21
    • Chapter 22
    • Chapter 23
    • Chapter 24
    • Chapter 25
    • Chapter 26
    • Part VII Opener
    • Chapter 27
    • Chapter 28
    • Chapter 29
    • Chapter 30
    • Part VII Summary

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