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Biology: Science for Life

Biology: Science for Life 6th Edition

By: Colleen Belk Virginia Borden Maier
/ ISBN-13: 9780134819167
Edition: 6th Edition
Language: English
				
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Brief Contents

Title Page

Copyright Page

About the Authors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Contents

Chapter 1: Can Science Cure the Common Cold?

    • Introduction to the Scientific Method
    • 1.1. The Process of Science
    • The Nature of Hypotheses
    • Scientific Theories
    • The Logic of Hypothesis Tests
    • 1.2. Hypothesis Testing
    • The Experimental Method
    • Controlled Experiments
    • Minimizing Bias in Experimental Design
    • Using Correlation to Test Hypotheses
    • 1.3. Understanding Statistics
    • What Statistical Tests Can Tell Us
    • Factors that Influence Statistical Significance
    • What Statistical Tests Cannot Tell Us
    • 1.4. Evaluating Scientific Information
    • Primary Sources
    • Information from Anecdotes
    • Science in the News
    • Understanding Science from Secondary Sources
    • Is There a Cure for the Common Cold?
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: How Do I Know What to Believe?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 2: Science Fiction, Bad Science, and Pseudoscience

    • Water, Biochemistry, and Cells
    • 2.1. A Definition of Life
    • 2.2. The Properties of Water
    • The Structure of Water
    • Water Is a Good Solvent
    • Water Facilitates Chemical Reactions
    • Water Moderates Temperature
    • The Drinking-Water Hypothesis Requires More Substantiation
    • 2.3. Chemistry for Biology Students
    • Chemical Bonds
    • The Bermuda Triangle Revisited
    • 2.4. Biological Macromolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Dietary Macromolecules and Behavior
    • 2.5. An Introduction to Evolutionary Theory
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Does Balanced Reporting Help us Draw More Accurate Conclusions?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 3: Is It Possible to Supplement Your Way to Better Performance and Health?

    • Nutrients and Membrane Transport
    • 3.1. Nutrients
    • Macronutrients
    • Micronutrients
    • Antioxidants
    • 3.2. Cell Structure
    • Plasma Membrane
    • Subcellular Structures
    • 3.3. Transport Across Membranes
    • Passive Transport: Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis
    • Active Transport: Pumping Substances across the Membrane
    • Exocytosis and Endocytosis: Movement of Large Molecules across the Membrane
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should I Routinely use Detox Products?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 4: Body Weight and Health

    • Enzymes, Metabolism, and Cellular Respiration
    • 4.1. Enzymes and Metabolism
    • Enzymes
    • Metabolism
    • 4.2. Cellular Respiration
    • Structure and Function of ATP
    • Cellular Respiration
    • Stages of Cellular Respiration
    • Metabolism of Other Nutrients
    • Metabolism without Oxygen: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation
    • 4.3. Body Weight and Health
    • Body Mass Index
    • Underweight Is Unhealthy
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: How Unhealthy is Anorexia?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 5: Life in the Greenhouse

    • Photosynthesis and Climate Change
    • 5.1. The Greenhouse Effect
    • Earth Is a Greenhouse
    • Water, Heat, and Temperature
    • 5.2. The Flow of Carbon
    • 5.3. Can Photosynthesis Slow Down Global Climate Change?
    • Chloroplasts: The Site of Photosynthesis
    • The Process of Photosynthesis
    • 5.4. How High Temperatures Might Reduce Photosynthesis
    • 5.5. How We Can Slow Global Climate Change
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should Global Warming be Kept Below 4°C?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 6: Cancer

    • DNA Synthesis and Mitosis
    • 6.1. What Is Cancer?
    • Tumors Can Be Cancerous
    • Risk Factors for Cancer
    • 6.2. Passing Genes and Chromosomes to Daughter Cells
    • Genes and Chromosomes
    • DNA Replication
    • 6.3. The Cell Cycle and Mitosis
    • Interphase
    • Mitosis
    • Cytokinesis
    • 6.4. Cancer Prevention, Detection, and Treatment
    • Tumor Suppressors Help Prevent Cancer
    • Cancer Detection
    • Cancer Treatment
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Can I Prevent Myself from Getting Cancer?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 7: Fertility

    • Meiosis and Human Reproduction
    • 7.1. Producing Sperm and Eggs: Meiosis
    • Interphase
    • Meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
    • 7.2. Problems with Meiosis and Lowered Fertility
    • 7.3. Bringing Sperm and Egg Together
    • Male Reproductive Anatomy
    • Female Reproductive Anatomy
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Does Marijuana use Impair Fertility?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 8: Does Testing Save Lives?

    • Mendelian Genetics
    • 8.1. The Inheritance of Traits
    • Genes and Chromosomes
    • Producing Diversity in Offspring
    • 8.2. Basic Mendelian Genetics: When the Role of Genes Is Clear
    • Genotype and Phenotype
    • Genetic Diseases in Humans
    • Using Punnett Squares to Predict Offspring Genotypes
    • 8.3. Extensions of Mendelian Genetics
    • 8.4. Sex and Inheritance
    • Sex Determination and X-Linkage
    • Pedigrees
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should There be Universal Screening for Killer Diseases?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 9: Biology of Wrongful Convictions

    • Complex Genetic Traits, Heritability, and DNA Profiling
    • 9.1. Eyewitness Testimony and Complex Genetic Traits
    • Polygenic Traits
    • Quantitative Traits
    • 9.2. Genes, Criminality, and Implicit Bias
    • Studying Nature versus Nurture
    • The Use and Misuse of Heritability
    • Implicit Bias
    • 9.3. Positive Identification
    • DNA Profiling
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should the Death Penalty be Abolished in the United States?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 10: Genetically Modified Organisms

    • Gene Expression, Mutation, Stem Cells, and Cloning
    • 10.1. Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression
    • From Gene to Protein
    • Transcription
    • Translation
    • Mutations
    • Gene Expression
    • 10.2. Producing Recombinant Proteins
    • Cloning a Gene Using Bacteria
    • FDA Regulations
    • 10.3. Genetically Modified Plants and Animals
    • Modifying Crop Plants
    • Modifying Animals
    • Gene Editing Using CRISPR in Plants and Animals
    • 10.4. Genetically Modified Humans
    • Stem Cells
    • Gene Therapy
    • Gene Editing in Humans
    • Cloning Humans
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should Anti-GMO Activists Give up the Fight?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 11: Where Did We Come From?

    • The Evidence for Evolution
    • 11.1. What Is Evolution?
    • The Process of Evolution
    • The Theory of Evolution
    • 11.2. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution
    • Early Views of Evolution
    • The Voyage of the Beagle
    • Developing the Hypothesis of Common Descent
    • Alternative Ideas on the Origins and Relationships among Organisms
    • 11.3. Examining the Evidence for Common Descent
    • Linnaean Classification
    • Anatomical Homology
    • Developmental Homologies
    • Molecular Homology
    • Biogeography
    • The Fossil Record
    • 11.4. Are Alternatives to the Theory of Evolution Equally Valid?
    • Weighing the Alternatives
    • The Best Scientific Explanation for the Diversity of Life
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should High School Biology Teachers be Required to “Teach the Controversy”?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 12: An Evolving Enemy

    • Natural Selection
    • 12.1. Return of a Killer
    • What Is Tuberculosis?
    • Treatment—and Treatment Failure
    • 12.2. Natural Selection Causes Evolution
    • Darwin’s Observations
    • Darwin’s Inference: Natural Selection Causes Evolution
    • Testing Natural Selection
    • 12.3. Natural Selection Since Darwin
    • The Modern Synthesis
    • The Subtleties of Natural Selection
    • Patterns of Selection
    • 12.4. Natural Selection and Human Health
    • Tuberculosis Fits Darwin’s Observations
    • Selecting for Drug Resistance
    • Stopping Drug Resistance
    • Can Natural Selection Save Us from Superbugs?
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should I Stop Purchasing Meats that are Raised using Antibiotics?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 13: Understanding Race

    • Speciation and Macroevolution
    • 13.1. What Is a Species?
    • The Biological Species Concept
    • Speciation
    • Isolation and Divergence of Gene Pools
    • The Evolution of Reproductive Isolation
    • 13.2. Are Human Races Biological?
    • The History of Human Races
    • The Morphological Species Concept
    • Modern Humans: A History
    • Genetic Evidence of Divergence
    • Human Races Are Not Isolated Biological Groups
    • Human Races Have Never Been Truly Isolated
    • 13.3. Why Human Groups Differ
    • Natural Selection
    • Convergent Evolution
    • Genetic Drift
    • Sexual Selection
    • Assortative Mating
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Are Affirmative Action Policies that Favor Black Students Applying for College Adm
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 14: The Greatest Species on Earth?

    • Biodiversity and Classification
    • 14.1. Biological Classification
    • How Many Species Exist?
    • Domains of Life
    • 14.2. The Diversity of Life
    • The Domains Bacteria and Archaea
    • The Origin of the Domain Eukarya
    • The Protista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Not Quite Living: Viruses
    • 14.3. Learning about Species
    • Reconstructing Evolutionary History
    • The Greatest Species on Earth
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should Lab Mice and Rats have the same Rights as other Nonhuman Animals?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 15: Is the Human Population Too Large?

    • Population Ecology
    • 15.1. Population Growth
    • Population Structure
    • Exponential Population Growth
    • The Demographic Transition
    • 15.2. Limits to Population Growth
    • Carrying Capacity and Logistic Growth
    • Earth’s Carrying Capacity for Humans
    • 15.3. The Future of the Human Population
    • A Possible Population Crash?
    • Avoiding Disaster
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Should the International Community Continue to Provide Food aid to Populations Exp
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 16: Conserving Biodiversity

    • Community and Ecosystem Ecology
    • 16.1. The Sixth Extinction
    • Measuring Extinction Rates
    • Causes of Extinction
    • 16.2. The Consequences of Extinction
    • Loss of Resources
    • Predation, Mutualism, and Competition
    • Energy and Chemical Flows
    • Psychological Effects
    • 16.3. Saving Species
    • Protecting Habitat
    • Small Populations Are Vulnerable
    • Conservation Genetics
    • Protecting Biodiversity versus Meeting Human Needs
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Is Wind Power Good or Bad for Birds?
    • Chapter Review

Chapter 17: The Human Footprint

    • Climate and Biomes
    • 17.1. Climate Determines Habitability
    • Global Temperature and Precipitation Patterns
    • Local Influences on Climate
    • 17.2. Terrestrial Biomes and the Human Footprint
    • Tundra
    • Desert
    • Forests and Shrublands
    • Grasslands
    • 17.3. Aquatic Biomes and the Human Footprint
    • Freshwater
    • Saltwater
    • Sounds Right, But Is It?
    • The Big Question: Can my Actions make a Difference on Global Environmental Issues?
    • Chapter Review

Appendix: Metric System Conversions

Answers

Glossary

Credits

Index

Back Cover

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