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Biology

Biology 12th Edition

By: Peter Raven
ISBN-10: 1260169618
/ ISBN-13: 9781260494570
Edition: 12th Edition
Language: English
				
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Part I The Molecular Basis of Life

    • 1 The Science of Biology
    • 1.1 The Science of Life
    • 1.2 The Nature of Science
    • 1.3 An Example of Scientific Inquiry: Darwin and Evolution
    • 1.4 Core Concepts in Biology
    • 2 The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water
    • 2.1 The Nature of Atoms
    • 2.2 Elements Found in Living Systems
    • 2.3 The Nature of Chemical Bonds
    • 2.4 Water: A Vital Compound
    • 2.5 Properties of Water
    • 2.6 Acids and Bases
    • 3 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life
    • 3.1 Carbon: The Framework of Biological Molecules
    • 3.2 Carbohydrates: Energy Storage and Structural Molecules
    • 3.3 Nucleic Acids: Information Molecules
    • 3.4 Proteins: Molecules with Diverse Structures and Functions
    • 3.5 Lipids: Hydrophobic Molecules

Part II Biology of the Cell

    • 4 Cell Structure
    • 4.1 Cell Theory
    • 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
    • 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
    • 4.4 The Endomembrane System
    • 4.5 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: Cellular Generators
    • 4.6 The Cytoskeleton
    • 4.7 Extracellular Structures and Cell Movement
    • 4.8 Cell-to-Cell Interactions
    • 5 Membranes
    • 5.1 The Structure of Membranes
    • 5.2 Phospholipids: The Membrane’s Foundation
    • 5.3 Proteins: Multifunctional Components
    • 5.4 Passive Transport Across Membranes
    • 5.5 Active Transport Across Membranes
    • 5.6 Bulk Transport by Endocytosis and Exocytosis
    • 6 Energy and Metabolism
    • 6.1 The Flow of Energy in Living Systems
    • 6.2 The Laws of Thermodynamics and Free Energy
    • 6.3 ATP: The Energy Currency of Cells
    • 6.4 Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
    • 6.5 Metabolism: The Chemical Description of Cell Function
    • 7 How Cells Harvest Energy
    • 7.1 Overview of Respiration
    • 7.2 Glycolysis: Splitting Glucose
    • 7.3 The Oxidation of Pyruvate Produces Acetyl-CoA
    • 7.4 The Citric Acid Cycle
    • 7.5 The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis
    • 7.6 Energy Yield of Aerobic Respiration
    • 7.7 Regulation of Aerobic Respiration
    • 7.8 Oxidation Without O2
    • 7.9 Catabolism of Proteins and Fats
    • 7.10 Evolution of Metabolism
    • 8 Photosynthesis
    • 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
    • 8.2 The Discovery of Photosynthetic Processes
    • 8.3 Pigments
    • 8.4 Photosystem Organization
    • 8.5 The Light-Dependent Reactions
    • 8.6 Carbon Fixation: The Calvin Cycle
    • 8.7 Photorespiration
    • 9 Cell Communication
    • 9.1 Overview of Cell Communication
    • 9.2 Receptor Types
    • 9.3 Intracellular Receptors
    • 9.4 Signal Transduction Through Receptor Kinases
    • 9.5 Signal Transduction Through G Protein–Coupled Receptors
    • 10 How Cells Divide
    • 10.1 Bacterial Cell Division
    • 10.2 Eukaryotic Chromosomes
    • 10.3 Overview of the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
    • 10.4 Interphase: Preparation for Mitosis
    • 10.5 M Phase: Chromosome Segregation and the Division of Cytoplasmic Contents
    • 10.6 Control of the Cell Cycle
    • 10.7 Genetics of Cancer

Part III Genetic and Molecular Biology

    • 11 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis
    • 11.1 Sexual Reproduction Requires Meiosis
    • 11.2 Features of Meiosis
    • 11.3 The Process of Meiosis
    • 11.4 Summing Up: Meiosis Versus Mitosis
    • 12 Patterns of Inheritance
    • 12.1 The Mystery of Heredity
    • 12.2 Monohybrid Crosses: The Principle of Segregation
    • 12.3 Dihybrid Crosses: The Principle of Independent Assortment
    • 12.4 Probability: Predicting the Results of Crosses
    • 12.5 The Testcross: Revealing Unknown Genotypes
    • 12.6 Extensions to Mendel
    • 13 Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis–Inheritance Connection
    • 13.1 Sex Linkage and the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
    • 13.2 Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination
    • 13.3 Exceptions to the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
    • 13.4 Genetic Mapping
    • 13.5 Human Genetic Disorders
    • 14 DNA: The Genetic Material
    • 14.1 The Nature of the Genetic Material
    • 14.2 DNA Structure
    • 14.3 Basic Characteristics of DNA Replication
    • 14.4 Prokaryotic Replication
    • 14.5 Eukaryotic Replication
    • 14.6 DNA Repair
    • 15 Genes and How They Work
    • 15.1 The Nature of Genes
    • 15.2 The Genetic Code
    • 15.3 Prokaryotic Transcription
    • 15.4 Eukaryotic Transcription
    • 15.5 Eukaryotic pre-mRNA Splicing
    • 15.6 The Structure of tRNA and Ribosomes
    • 15.7 The Process of Translation
    • 15.8 Summarizing Gene Expression
    • 15.9 Mutation: Altered Genes
    • 16 Control of Gene Expression
    • 16.1 Control of Gene Expression
    • 16.2 Regulatory Proteins
    • 16.3 Prokaryotic Regulation
    • 16.4 Eukaryotic Regulation
    • 16.5 Chromatin Structure Affects Gene Expression
    • 16.6 Eukaryotic Posttranscriptional Regulation
    • 16.7 Protein Degradation
    • 17 Biotechnology
    • 17.1 Recombinant DNA
    • 17.2 Amplifying DNA Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • 17.3 Creating, Correcting, and Analyzing Genetic Variation
    • 17.4 Constructing and Using Transgenic Organisms
    • 17.5 Environmental Applications
    • 17.6 Medical Applications
    • 17.7 Agricultural Applications
    • 18 Genomics
    • 18.1 Mapping Genomes
    • 18.2 Sequencing Genomes
    • 18.3 Genome Projects
    • 18.4 Genome Annotation and Databases
    • 18.5 Comparative and Functional Genomics
    • 18.6 Applications of Genomics
    • 19 Cellular Mechanisms of Development
    • 19.1 The Process of Development
    • 19.2 Cell Division
    • 19.3 Cell Differentiation
    • 19.4 Nuclear Reprogramming
    • 19.5 Pattern Formation
    • 19.6 Evolution of Pattern Formation
    • 19.7 Morphogenesis

Part IV Evolution

    • 20 Genes Within Populations
    • 20.1 Genetic Variation and Evolution
    • 20.2 Changes in Allele Frequency
    • 20.3 Five Agents of Evolutionary Change
    • 20.4 Quantifying Natural Selection
    • 20.5 Reproductive Strategies
    • 20.6 Natural Selection’s Role in Maintaining Variation
    • 20.7 Selection Acting on Traits Affected by Multiple Genes
    • 20.8 Experimental Studies of Natural Selection
    • 20.9 Interactions Among Evolutionary Forces
    • 20.10 The Limits of Selection
    • 21 The Evidence for Evolution
    • 21.1 The Beaks of Darwin’s Finches: Evidence of Natural Selection
    • 21.2 Peppered Moths and Industrial Melanism: More Evidence of Selection
    • 21.3 Artificial Selection: Human-Initiated Change
    • 21.4 Fossil Evidence of Evolution
    • 21.5 Anatomical Evidence for Evolution
    • 21.6 Convergent Evolution and the Biogeographical Record
    • 21.7 Darwin’s Critics
    • 22 The Origin of Species
    • 22.1 The Nature of Species and the Biological Species Concept
    • 22.2 Natural Selection and Reproductive Isolation
    • 22.3 The Role of Genetic Drift and Natural Selection in Speciation
    • 22.4 The Geography of Speciation
    • 22.5 Adaptive Radiation and Biological Diversity
    • 22.6 The Pace of Evolution
    • 22.7 Speciation and Extinction Through Time
    • 23 Systematics, Phylogenies, and Comparative Biology
    • 23.1 Systematics
    • 23.2 Cladistics
    • 23.3 Systematics and Classification
    • 23.4 Phylogenetics and Comparative Biology
    • 23.5 Phylogenetics and Disease Evolution
    • 24 Genome Evolution
    • 24.1 Comparative Genomics
    • 24.2 Genome Size
    • 24.3 Evolution Within Genomes
    • 24.4 Gene Function and Expression Patterns
    • 24.5 Applying Comparative Genomics

Part V Diversity of Life on Earth

    • 25 The Origin and Diversity of Life
    • 25.1 Deep Time
    • 25.2 Origins of Life
    • 25.3 Evidence for Early Life
    • 25.4 Earth’s Changing System
    • 25.5 Ever-Changing Life on Earth
    • 26 Viruses
    • 26.1 The Nature of Viruses
    • 26.2 Viral Diversity
    • 26.3 Bacteriophage: Bacterial Viruses
    • 26.4 Viral Diseases of Humans
    • 26.5 Prions and Viroids: Infectious Subviral Particles
    • 27 Prokaryotes
    • 27.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
    • 27.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure
    • 27.3 Prokaryotic Genetics
    • 27.4 The Metabolic Diversity of Prokaryotes
    • 27.5 Microbial Ecology
    • 27.6 Bacterial Diseases of Humans
    • 28 Protists
    • 28.1 Eukaryotic Origins and Endosymbiosis
    • 28.2 Overview of Protists
    • 28.3 Characteristics of the Excavata
    • 28.4 Characteristics of the Chromalveolata
    • 28.5 Characteristics of the Rhizaria
    • 28.6 Characteristics of the Archaeplastida
    • 28.7 Characteristics of the Amoebozoa
    • 28.8 Characteristics of the Opisthokonta
    • 29 Seedless Plants
    • 29.1 Origin of Land Plants
    • 29.2 Bryophytes Have a Dominant Gametophyte Generation
    • 29.3 Tracheophytes Have a Dominant Sporophyte Generation
    • 29.4 Lycophytes Diverged from the Main Lineage of Vascular Plants
    • 29.5 Pterophytes Are the Ferns and Their Relatives
    • 30 Seed Plants
    • 30.1 The Evolution of Seed Plants
    • 30.2 Gymnosperms: Plants with “Naked Seeds”
    • 30.3 Angiosperms: The Flowering Plants
    • 30.4 Seeds
    • 30.5 Fruits
    • 31 Fungi
    • 31.1 Classification of Fungi
    • 31.2 Fungal Forms, Nutrition, and Reproduction
    • 31.3 Fungal Ecology
    • 31.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens
    • 31.5 Basidiomycota: The Club (Basidium) Fungi
    • 31.6 Ascomycota: The Sac (Ascus) Fungi
    • 31.7 Glomeromycota: Asexual Plant Symbionts
    • 31.8 Zygomycota: Zygote-Producing Fungi
    • 31.9 Chytridiomycota and Relatives: Fungi with Zoospores
    • 31.10 Microsporidia: Unicellular Parasites
    • 32 Animal Diversity and the Evolution of Body Plans
    • 32.1 Some General Features of Animals
    • 32.2 Evolution of the Animal Body Plan
    • 32.3 Animal Phylogeny
    • 32.4 Parazoa: Animals That Lack Specialized Tissues
    • 32.5 Eumetazoa: Animals with True Tissues
    • 32.6 The Bilateria
    • 33 Protostomes
    • 33.1 The Clades of Protostomes
    • 33.2 Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)
    • 33.3 Rotifers (Rotifera)
    • 33.4 Mollusks (Mollusca)
    • 33.5 Ribbon Worms (Nemertea)
    • 33.6 Annelids (Annelida)
    • 33.7 Bryozoans (Bryozoa) and Brachiopods (Brachiopoda)
    • 33.8 Roundworms (Nematoda)
    • 33.9 Arthropods (Arthropoda)
    • 34 Deuterostomes
    • 34.1 Echinoderms
    • 34.2 Chordates
    • 34.3 Nonvertebrate Chordates
    • 34.4 Vertebrate Chordates
    • 34.5 Fishes
    • 34.6 Amphibians
    • 34.7 Reptiles
    • 34.8 Birds
    • 34.9 Mammals
    • 34.10 Evolution of the Primates

Part VI Plant Form and Function

    • 35 Plant Form
    • 35.1 Organization of the Plant Body: An Overview
    • 35.2 Plant Tissues
    • 35.3 Roots: Anchoring and Absorption Structures
    • 35.4 Stems: Support for Above-Ground Organs
    • 35.5 Leaves: Photosynthetic Organs
    • 36 Transport in Plants
    • 36.1 Transport Mechanisms
    • 36.2 Water and Mineral Absorption
    • 36.3 Xylem Transport
    • 36.4 Rate of Transpiration
    • 36.5 Water-Stress Responses
    • 36.6 Phloem Transport
    • 37 Plant Nutrition and Soils
    • 37.1 Soils: The Substrates on Which Plants Depend
    • 37.2 Plant Nutrients
    • 37.3 Special Nutritional Strategies
    • 37.4 Carbon–Nitrogen Balance and Global Change
    • 37.5 Phytoremediation
    • 38 Plant Defense Responses
    • 38.1 Physical Defenses
    • 38.2 Chemical Defenses
    • 38.3 Animals That Protect Plants
    • 38.4 Systemic Responses to Invaders
    • 39 Sensory Systems in Plants
    • 39.1 Responses to Light
    • 39.2 Responses to Gravity
    • 39.3 Responses to Mechanical Stimuli
    • 39.4 Responses to Water and Temperature
    • 39.5 Hormones and Sensory Systems
    • 40 Plant Reproduction
    • 40.1 Reproductive Development
    • 40.2 Making Flowers
    • 40.3 Structure and Evolution of Flowers
    • 40.4 Pollination and Fertilization
    • 40.5 Embryo Development
    • 40.6 Germination
    • 40.7 Asexual Reproduction
    • 40.8 Plant Life Spans

Part VII Animal Form and Function

    • 41 The Animal Body and Principles of Regulation
    • 41.1 Organization of Animal Bodies
    • 41.2 Epithelial Tissue
    • 41.3 Connective Tissue
    • 41.4 Muscle Tissue
    • 41.5 Nerve Tissue
    • 41.6 Overview of Vertebrate Organ Systems
    • 41.7 Homeostasis
    • 41.8 Regulating Body Temperature
    • 42 The Nervous System
    • 42.1 Nervous System Organization
    • 42.2 The Mechanism of Nerve Impulse Transmission
    • 42.3 Synapses: Where Neurons Communicate with Other Cells
    • 42.4 The Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord
    • 42.5 The Peripheral Nervous System: Spinal and Cranial Nerves
    • 43 Sensory Systems
    • 43.1 Overview of Sensory Receptors
    • 43.2 Thermoreceptors, Nociceptors, and Electromagnetic Receptors: Temperature, Pain, and Magnetic Fields
    • 43.3 Mechanoreceptors I: Touch, Pressure, and Body Position
    • 43.4 Mechanoreceptors II: Hearing, Vibration, and Balance
    • 43.5 Chemoreceptors: Taste, Smell, and pH
    • 43.6 Vision
    • 43.7 Evolution and Development of Eyes
    • 44 The Endocrine System
    • 44.1 Regulation of Body Processes by Chemical Messengers
    • 44.2 Overview of Hormone Action
    • 44.3 The Pituitary and Hypothalamus: The Body’s Control Centers
    • 44.4 The Major Peripheral Endocrine Glands
    • 44.5 Other Hormones and Their Effects
    • 45 The Musculoskeletal System
    • 45.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
    • 45.2 A Closer Look at Bone
    • 45.3 Joints
    • 45.4 Muscle Contraction
    • 45.5 Vertebrate Skeleton Evolution and Modes of Locomotion
    • 46 The Digestive System
    • 46.1 Types of Digestive Systems
    • 46.2 The Mouth and Teeth: Food Capture and Bulk Processing
    • 46.3 The Esophagus and the Stomach: The Early Stagesof Digestion
    • 46.4 The Intestines: Breakdown, Absorption, and Elimination
    • 46.5 Accessory Organ Function
    • 46.6 Neural and Hormonal Regulation of the Digestive Tract
    • 46.7 Food Energy, Energy Expenditure, and Essential Nutrients
    • 46.8 Variations in Vertebrate Digestive Systems
    • 47 The Respiratory System
    • 47.1 Gas Exchange Across Respiratory Surfaces
    • 47.2 Gills, Cutaneous Respiration, and Tracheal Systems
    • 47.3 Lungs
    • 47.4 Structures, Mechanisms, and Control of Ventilation in Mammals
    • 47.5 Transport of Gases in Body Fluids
    • 48 The Circulatory System
    • 48.1 Invertebrate Circulatory Systems
    • 48.2 The Components of Vertebrate Blood
    • 48.3 Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
    • 48.4 Cardiac Cycle, Electrical Conduction, ECG, and Cardiac Output
    • 48.5 Blood Pressure and Blood Vessels
    • 49 Osmotic Regulation and the Urinary System
    • 49.1 Osmolarity and Osmotic Balance
    • 49.2 Nitrogenous Wastes: Ammonia, Urea, and Uric Acid
    • 49.3 Osmoregulatory Organs
    • 49.4 Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney
    • 49.5 The Mammalian Kidney
    • 49.6 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
    • 50 The Immune System
    • 50.1 Innate Immunity
    • 50.2 Adaptive Immunity
    • 50.3 Cell-Mediated Immunity
    • 50.4 Humoral Immunity and Antibody Production
    • 50.5 Autoimmunity and Hypersensitivity
    • 50.6 Antibodies in Medical Treatment and Diagnosis
    • 50.7 Pathogens That Evade the Immune System
    • 51 The Reproductive System
    • 51.1 Animal Reproductive Strategies
    • 51.2 Vertebrate Fertilization and Development
    • 51.3 Structure and Function of the Human Male Reproductive System
    • 51.4 Structure and Function of the Human Female Reproductive System
    • 51.5 Contraception and Infertility Treatments
    • 52 Animal Development
    • 52.1 Fertilization
    • 52.2 Cleavage and the Blastula Stage
    • 52.3 Gastrulation
    • 52.4 Organogenesis
    • 52.5 Vertebrate Axis and Pattern Formation
    • 52.6 Human Development

Part VIII Ecology and Behavior

    • 53 Behavioral Biology
    • 53.1 The Natural History of Behavior
    • 53.2 Nerve Cells, Neurotransmitters, Hormones, and Behavior
    • 53.3 Behavioral Genetics
    • 53.4 Learning
    • 53.5 The Development of Behavior
    • 53.6 Animal Cognition
    • 53.7 Orientation and Migratory Behavior
    • 53.8 Animal Communication
    • 53.9 Behavior and Evolution
    • 53.10 Behavioral Ecology
    • 53.11 Reproductive Strategies
    • 53.12 Altruism
    • 53.13 The Evolution of Group Living and Animal Societies
    • 54 Ecology of Individuals and Populations
    • 54.1 The Environmental Challenges
    • 54.2 Populations: Groups of a Single Species in One Place
    • 54.3 Population Demography and Dynamics
    • 54.4 Life History and the Cost of Reproduction
    • 54.5 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
    • 54.6 Factors That Regulate Populations
    • 54.7 Human Population Growth
    • 55 Community Ecology
    • 55.1 Biological Communities: Species Living Together
    • 55.2 The Ecological Niche Concept
    • 55.3 Predator–Prey Relationships
    • 55.4 The Many Types of Species Interactions
    • 55.5 Ecological Succession, Disturbance, and Species Richness
    • 56 Dynamics of Ecosystems
    • 56.1 Biogeochemical Cycles
    • 56.2 The Flow of Energy in Ecosystems
    • 56.3 Trophic-Level Interactions
    • 56.4 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stability
    • 56.5 Island Biogeography
    • 57 The Biosphere and Human Impacts
    • 57.1 Ecosystem Effects of Sun, Wind, and Water
    • 57.2 Earth’s Biomes
    • 57.3 Freshwater Habitats
    • 57.4 Marine Habitats
    • 57.5 Human Impacts on the Biosphere: Pollution and Resource Depletion
    • 57.6 Human Impacts on the Biosphere: Climate Change
    • 58 Conservation Biology
    • 58.1 Overview of the Biodiversity Crisis
    • 58.2 The Value of Biodiversity
    • 58.3 Factors Responsible for Extinction
    • 58.4 An Evolutionary Perspective on the Biodiversity Crisis
    • 58.5 Approaches for Preserving Endangered Species and Ecosystems

Appendix

Glossary

Index


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