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Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal Psychology 9th Edition

By: Thomas F. Oltmanns Robert E. Emery
ISBN-10: 0134531833
/ ISBN-13: 9780134623870
Edition: 9th Edition
Language: English
				
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Abnormal Psychology

Contents

Preface

    • Content Highlights
    • New to This Edition
    • Supplements

About the Authors

Chapter 1 Examples and Definitions of Abnormal Behavior

    • Learning Objectives
    • 1.1: Recognizing the Presence of a Disorder
    • 1.1.1: Features of Abnormal Behavior
    • 1.1.2: Diagnosis and Definitions
    • 1.2: Defining Abnormal Behavior
    • 1.2.1: Harmful Dysfunction
    • The DSM-5
    • 1.2.2: Mental Health Versus Absence of Disorder
    • 1.2.3: Culture and Diagnostic Practice
    • 1.3: Who Experiences Abnormal Behavior?
    • 1.3.1: Frequency in and Impact on Community Populations
    • Lifetime Prevalence and Gender Differences
    • Comorbidity and Disease Burden
    • 1.3.2: Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    • 1.4: The Mental Health Professions
    • 1.4.1: Common Mental Health Professions
    • 1.4.2: The Future of Mental Health Professions
    • 1.5: Psychopathology in Historical Context
    • 1.5.1: The Greek Tradition in Medicine
    • 1.5.2: The Creation of the Asylum
    • 1.5.3: Worcester Lunatic Hospital
    • 1.5.4: Lessons from the History of Psychopathology
    • 1.6: Methods for the Scientific Study of Mental Disorders
    • 1.6.1: The Uses and Limitations of Case Studies
    • 1.6.2: Clinical Research Methods
    • Summary: Examples and Definitions of Abnormal Behavior
    • Key Terms

Chapter 2 Causes of Abnormal Behavior

    • Learning Objectives
    • 2.1: Brief Historical Perspective
    • 2.1.1: The Biological Paradigm
    • 2.1.2: The Psychodynamic Paradigm
    • The Mind According to Psychoanalytic Theory
    • The Id
    • The Ego
    • The Superego
    • 2.1.3: The Cognitive-Behavioral Paradigm
    • 2.1.4: The Humanistic Paradigm
    • The Problem With Paradigms
    • 2.2: Systems Theory
    • 2.2.1: Holism
    • 2.2.2: Causality
    • 2.2.3: Developmental Psychopathology
    • 2.3: Biological Factors
    • 2.3.1: The Neuron and Neurotransmitters
    • 2.3.2: Neurotransmitters and Psychopathology
    • Mind–Body Dualism
    • 2.3.3: Major Brain Structures
    • 2.3.4: Cerebral Hemispheres, Major Brain Structures, and Psychopathology
    • 2.3.5: Psychophysiology
    • 2.3.6: Behavior Genetics
    • Inheritance
    • Family Incidence Studies and Adoption Studies
    • Twin Studies
    • Shared Environment
    • Nonshared Environment
    • Genetics and Psychopathology
    • Genes AND Environment
    • Gene–Environment Interaction
    • Gene–Environment Correlation
    • Epigenetics
    • 2.4: Psychological Factors
    • 2.4.1: Human Nature
    • Evolutionary Psychology
    • Natural Selection
    • Sexual Selection
    • Attachment Theory and Dominance
    • attachment Theory
    • Dominance
    • 2.4.2: Temperament and Emotions
    • Emotions
    • 2.4.3: Learning and Cognition
    • Modeling
    • Cognitive Mechanism
    • 2.4.4: The Sense of Self
    • Identity
    • Self-control
    • Self-Esteem
    • 2.4.5: Stages of Development
    • 2.5: Social Factors
    • 2.5.1: Close Relationships
    • 2.5.2: Gender and Gender Roles
    • 2.5.3: Prejudice, Poverty, and Society
    • Summary: Causes of Abnormal Behavior
    • Key Terms

Chapter 3 Treatment of Psychological Disorders

    • Learning Objectives
    • 3.1: Biological Treatments
    • 3.1.1: Psychopharmacology
    • 3.1.2: Electroconvulsive Therapy
    • 3.1.3: Psychosurgery
    • 3.2: Psychodynamic Psychotherapies
    • 3.2.1: Freudian Psychoanalysis
    • Psychoanalytic Techniques
    • Insight
    • Interpretation
    • Timing
    • Therapeutic Neutrality
    • Transference
    • Countertransference
    • The Decline of Freudian Psychoanalysis
    • 3.2.2: Ego Analysis
    • 3.2.3: Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
    • 3.3: Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
    • 3.3.1: Systematic Desensitization
    • Other Exposure Therapies
    • Aversion Therapy
    • 3.3.2: Contingency Management
    • 3.3.3: Social Skills Training
    • 3.3.4: Cognitive Techniques
    • 3.3.5: Third-Wave CBT
    • 3.4: Humanistic Therapies
    • 3.4.1: Client-Centered Therapy
    • 3.4.2: A Means, Not an End?
    • 3.5: Research on Psychotherapy
    • 3.5.1: Does Psychotherapy Work?
    • Improvement without Treatment
    • The Placebo Effect
    • The Allegiance Effect
    • Efficacy and Effectiveness
    • When Does Psychotherapy Work?
    • The Length of Treatment
    • The Client’s Background Characteristics
    • 3.5.2: Psychotherapy Process Research
    • Common Factors in Psychotherapies
    • Differences
    • Similarities
    • Therapy as Social Support, Social Influence, and Pain Relief
    • Therapy as Social Influence
    • Pain Relief?
    • 3.6: Couple, Family, and Group Therapy
    • 3.6.1: Couple Therapy
    • 3.6.2: Family Therapy
    • 3.6.3: Group Therapy
    • 3.6.4: Prevention
    • 3.6.5: Specific Treatments for Specific Disorders
    • Summary: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
    • Key Terms

Chapter 4 Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

    • Learning Objectives
    • 4.1: Basic Issues in Classification
    • 4.1.1: Categories Versus Dimensions
    • 4.1.2: From Description to Theory
    • 4.2: Classifying Abnormal Behavior
    • 4.2.1: The DSM-5 System
    • 4.2.2: Culture and Classification
    • Ataques de Nervios
    • Symptoms
    • Causes
    • The Ambiguity of Culturally Defined Distress
    • 4.3: Evaluating Classification Systems
    • 4.3.1: Reliability
    • 4.3.2: Validity
    • Forms of Validity
    • Etiological Validity
    • Concurrent Validity
    • Predictive Validity
    • 4.3.3: Problems and Limitations of the DSM-5 System
    • 4.4: Basic Issues in Assessment
    • 4.4.1: Purposes of Clinical Assessment
    • 4.4.2: Assumptions About Consistency of Behavior
    • 4.4.3: Evaluating the Usefulness of Assessment Procedures
    • 4.5: Psychological Assessment: Interviews and Observational Procedures
    • 4.5.1: Interviews
    • Structured Interviews
    • Social Relationships
    • DSM Diagnostic Criterion:
    • Perception of Others
    • DSM Diagnostic Criterion:
    • DSM Diagnostic Criterion:
    • Advantages and Limitations of Interviews
    • Advantages
    • Limitations
    • 4.5.2: Observational Procedures
    • Rating Scales
    • Behavioral Coding Systems
    • Advantages and Limitations of Observational Measures
    • Advantages
    • Limitations
    • 4.6: Psychological Assessment: Personality Tests and Self-Report Inventories
    • 4.6.1: Personality Inventories
    • Actuarial Interpretation
    • Advantages and Limitations of the MMPI-2
    • Advantages
    • Limitations
    • 4.6.2: Projective Personality Tests
    • Recent Approaches to Projective Testing
    • Advantages and Limitations of Projective Tests
    • Advantages
    • Limitations
    • 4.7: Biological Assessment Procedures
    • 4.7.1: MRI and CT Scans
    • 4.7.2: PET and fMRI Scans
    • Advantages and Limitations of Brain Imaging Techniques
    • Advantages
    • Limitations
    • Summary: Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior
    • Key Terms

Chapter 5 Mood Disorders and Suicide

    • Learning Objectives
    • 5.1: Symptoms Associated with Depression
    • 5.1.1: Emotional Symptoms
    • 5.1.2: Cognitive Symptoms
    • 5.1.3: Somatic Symptoms
    • 5.1.4: Behavioral Symptoms
    • 5.1.5: Other Problems Commonly Associated with Depression
    • 5.2: Diagnosis for Depression and Bipolar Disorders
    • 5.2.1: Diagnosis for Depressive Disorders
    • Persistent Depressive Disorder
    • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
    • 5.2.2: Diagnosis for Bipolar Disorders
    • 5.2.3: Further Descriptions and Subtypes
    • 5.3: Course, Outcome, and Frequency
    • 5.3.1: Depressive Disorders
    • 5.3.2: Bipolar Disorders
    • 5.3.3: Incidence and Prevalence
    • 5.3.4: Risk for Mood Disorders Across the Life Span
    • 5.3.5: Gender Differences
    • 5.3.6: Cross-Cultural Differences
    • 5.4: Causes: Social and Psychological Factors
    • 5.4.1: Social Factors
    • The Relationship Between Stress and Depression
    • The Circumstances
    • Stress Generation
    • Gender Differences
    • Social Factors and Bipolar Disorders
    • Schedule-Disrupting and Goal-Attainment Events
    • Emotional Climate Within Families
    • 5.4.2: Psychological Factors
    • Cognitive Vulnerability
    • Distortions
    • Maladaptive Schemas
    • Causal Attributions
    • Inhibition of Negative Thoughts
    • Integration of Cognitive and Social Factors
    • 5.5: Causes: Biological Factors
    • 5.5.1: Genetics
    • Twin Studies
    • Searching for Specific Genes
    • Genetic Risk and Sensitivity to Stress
    • 5.5.2: The Neuroendocrine System
    • Brain Imaging Studies
    • Neurotransmitters
    • 5.5.3: Integration of Social, Psychological, and Biological Factors
    • 5.6: Treatment for Depressive Disorders
    • 5.6.1: Depressive Disorders and Therapy
    • 5.6.2: Antidepressant Medications
    • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
    • Tricyclics and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
    • The Efficacy of Psychotherapy and Medication
    • 5.7: Treatment for Bipolar and Mood Disorders
    • 5.7.1: Lithium and Anticonvulsant Medications for Bipolar Disorder
    • 5.7.2: Psychotherapy for Bipolar Disorder
    • 5.7.3: Electroconvulsive Therapy for Mood Disorders
    • 5.7.4: Light Therapy for Seasonal Mood Disorders
    • 5.8: Suicide
    • 5.8.1: Classification of Suicide
    • Nonsuicidal Self-Injury
    • Diagnostic Criteria
    • Causal Factors
    • 5.8.2: Frequency of Suicide
    • 5.8.3: Causes of Suicide
    • 5.8.4: Treatment of Suicidal People
    • Crisis Centers and Hotlines
    • Summary: Mood Disorders and Suicide
    • Key Terms

Chapter 6 Anxiety Disorders and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    • Learning Objectives
    • 6.1: Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders
    • 6.1.1: Anxiety
    • 6.1.2: Excessive Worry
    • 6.1.3: Panic Attacks
    • 6.1.4: Phobias
    • 6.2: Diagnosis of Anxiety Disorders
    • 6.2.1: Specific Phobias
    • 6.2.2: Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
    • 6.2.3: Agoraphobia
    • 6.2.4: Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • 6.2.5: Course and Outcome
    • 6.3: Frequency of Anxiety Disorders
    • 6.3.1: Prevalence
    • 6.3.2: Comorbidity
    • 6.3.3: Gender Differences
    • 6.3.4: Age Differences
    • 6.3.5: Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    • 6.4: Causes of Anxiety Disorders: Social and Biological Factors
    • 6.4.1: Adaptive and Maladaptive Fears
    • 6.4.2: Social Factors
    • Stressful Life Events
    • Childhood Adversity
    • Attachment Relationships and Separation Anxiety
    • 6.4.3: Genetic Factors
    • 6.4.4: Neurobiology
    • Social Context and the Amygdala
    • 6.5: Causes of Anxiety Disorders: Psychological Factors
    • 6.5.1: Learning Processes
    • Preparedness Model
    • 6.5.2: Cognitive Factors
    • Perception of Control
    • Catastrophic Misinterpretation
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Attention to Threat and Biased Information Processing
    • 6.6: Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
    • 6.6.1: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
    • 6.6.2: Systematic Desensitization and Exposure
    • 6.6.3: Relaxation and Breathing Retraining
    • 6.6.4: Cognitive Therapy
    • 6.6.5: Antianxiety Medications
    • 6.6.6: Antidepressant Medications
    • Long-Term Effectiveness of Anxiety Treatments
    • 6.7: Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders: Symptoms and Diagnosis
    • 6.7.1: Symptoms of OCD
    • Obsessions
    • Compulsions
    • Cleaning
    • Checking
    • 6.7.2: Diagnosis of OCD and Related Disorders
    • Hoarding
    • The Core Element
    • The Symptoms
    • Trichotillomania and Excoriation Disorder
    • Differentiating OCD from Other Disorders
    • 6.8: Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders: Frequency and Treatment
    • 6.8.1: Course, Outcome, and Frequency of OCD
    • Frequency of OCD and Related Disorders
    • 6.8.2: Causes of OCD
    • 6.8.3: Treatment of OCD
    • Exposure and Response Prevention
    • Biological Treatments
    • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
    • Clomipramine
    • Summary: Anxiety Disorders and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder
    • Key Terms

Chapter 7 Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders, Dissociative Disorders, and Somatic Symptom Disorders

    • Learning Objectives
    • 7.1: Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders
    • 7.1.1: Symptoms of ASD and PTSD
    • 7.1.2: Diagnosis of ASD and PTSD
    • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    • Acute Stress Disorder
    • What Defines Trauma
    • Exposure to Disasters
    • Sexual Assault
    • Comorbidity
    • 7.2: Frequency, Causes, and Treatment of PTSD and ASD
    • 7.2.1: Frequency of Trauma, PTSD, and ASD
    • Course and Outcome
    • 7.2.2: Causes of PTSD and ASD
    • Social Factors for PTSD
    • Biological Factors for PTSD
    • Does exposure to trauma have biological consequences as well as biological causes?
    • Does this mean that trauma damages the brain?
    • Psychological Factors for PTSD
    • Dissociation
    • The Value of Purpose
    • Emotional Processing
    • Meaning Making
    • Integration and Alternative Pathways
    • 7.2.3: Prevention and Treatment of ASD and PTSD
    • Emergency Help for Trauma Victims
    • Treatment for Veterans
    • Treatment of ASD and PTSD
    • Cognitive Behavior Therapy for PTSD
    • Imagery Rehearsal Therapy
    • EMDR
    • Antidepressant Medication
    • 7.3: Dissociative Disorders
    • 7.3.1: Hysteria and the Unconscious
    • Charcot, Freud, and Janet
    • Hypnosis: Altered State or Social Role?
    • Psychological Science and the Unconscious
    • 7.3.2: Symptoms of Dissociative Disorders
    • Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms
    • 7.4: Diagnosis, Causes, and Treatment of Dissociative Disorders
    • 7.4.1: Diagnosis of Dissociative Disorders
    • Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder
    • 7.4.2: Frequency of Dissociative Disorders
    • Disorder or Role Enactment?
    • 7.4.3: Causes of Dissociative Disorders
    • Psychological Factors for Dissociative Disorders
    • Biological and Social Factors for Dissociative Disorders
    • Social Factors
    • 7.4.4: Treatment of Dissociative Disorders
    • 7.5: Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • 7.5.1: Symptoms of Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • Unnecessary Medical Treatment
    • 7.5.2: Diagnosis of Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • Conversion Disorder
    • Somatic Symptom Disorder
    • Illness Anxiety Disorder
    • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    • Malingering and Factitious Disorder
    • 7.6: Frequency, Causes, and Treatment of Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • 7.6.1: Frequency of Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • Gender, SES, and Culture
    • Additional Disorders With Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • 7.6.2: Causes of Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • Biological Factors—The Perils of Diagnosis by Exclusion
    • Psychological Factors—Imagined or Real Trauma
    • Social Factors—The Influence of Culture
    • 7.6.3: Treatment of Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • Summary: Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders, Dissociative Disorders, and Somatic Symptom Disorders
    • Key Terms

Chapter 8 Stress and Physical Health

    • Learning Objectives
    • 8.1: Defining Stress
    • 8.1.1: Stress as a Life Event
    • 8.1.2: Symptoms of Stress
    • Adrenal Hormones
    • 8.1.3: Immune System Responses
    • Illness as a Cause of Stress
    • 8.2: Coping and Resilience
    • 8.2.1: Coping
    • 8.2.2: Resilience
    • 8.2.3: Health Behavior
    • Medical Advice
    • Illness Behavior
    • Social Support
    • 8.3: Diagnosis of Stress and Physical Illness
    • 8.3.1: Psychological Factors and Some Familiar Illnesses
    • 8.3.2: Cancer
    • 8.3.3: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    • 8.3.4: Pain Disorder
    • 8.3.5: Sleep-Wake Disorders
    • 8.4: Cardiovascular Disease and Stress
    • 8.4.1: Biological and Psychological Factors of CHD
    • 8.4.2: Social Factors of CVD
    • 8.4.3: Integration and Alternative Pathways
    • 8.4.4: Symptoms and Diagnosis of CVD
    • 8.4.5: Prevention and Treatment of CVD
    • Summary: Stress and Physical Health
    • Key Terms

Chapter 9 Personality Disorders

    • Learning Objectives
    • 9.1: Symptoms
    • 9.1.1: Social Motivation
    • 9.1.2: Cognitive Perspectives Regarding Self and Others
    • 9.1.3: Temperament and Personality Traits
    • 9.1.4: Context and Personality
    • 9.2: Diagnosis
    • 9.2.1: Cluster A: Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal Personality Disorders
    • 9.2.2: Cluster B: Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders
    • Features of Borderline Personality Disorder
    • 9.2.3: Cluster C: Avoidant, Dependent, and Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorders
    • 9.3: A Dimensional Perspective on Personality Disorders
    • 9.3.1: The Dimensional PD Model
    • 9.3.2: Describing Personality Disorder in Terms of Traits
    • 9.4: Frequency
    • 9.4.1: Prevalence in Community and Clinical Samples
    • 9.4.2: Gender Differences
    • 9.4.3: Stability of Personality Disorders Over Time
    • 9.4.4: Culture and Personality
    • 9.5: Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD)
    • 9.5.1: Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder
    • 9.5.2: Causes of Schizotypal Personality Disorder
    • 9.5.3: Treatment for Schizotypal Personality Disorder
    • 9.6: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
    • 9.6.1: Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder
    • 9.6.2: Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder
    • 9.6.3: Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder
    • Dialectical Behavior Study
    • 9.7: Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)
    • 9.7.1: Symp toms of Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • Antisocial Behavior Over the Life Span
    • 9.7.2: Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • Biological Factors
    • Social Factors
    • Range of Behavioral Skills
    • Results of Antisocial Behavior During Childhood and Adolescence
    • Psychological Factors
    • 9.7.3: Treatment for Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • Summary: Personality Disorders
    • Key Terms

Chapter 10 Feeding and Eating Disorders

    • Learning Objectives
    • 10.1: Symptoms of Anorexia
    • 10.1.1: Significantly Low Weight
    • 10.1.2: Fear of Gaining Weight
    • 10.1.3: Disturbance in Experiencing Weight or Shape
    • 10.1.4: Amenorrhea
    • 10.1.5: Medical Complications
    • 10.1.6: Struggle for Control
    • 10.1.7: Comorbid Psychological Disorders
    • 10.2: Symptoms of Bulimia
    • 10.2.1: Binge Eating
    • 10.2.2: Inappropriate Compensatory Behavior
    • 10.2.3: Excessive Emphasis on Weight and Shape
    • 10.2.4: Comorbid Psychological Disorders
    • 10.2.5: Medical Complications
    • 10.3: Diagnosis of Feeding and Eating Disorders
    • 10.3.1: Diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa
    • 10.3.2: Diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa
    • 10.4: Frequency of Anorexia and Bulimia
    • 10.4.1: Standards of Beauty and the Culture of Thinness
    • 10.4.2: Age of Onset
    • 10.5: Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia
    • 10.5.1: Social Factors
    • Troubled Family Relationships
    • Enmeshed Families
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Parental Influence and Struggles with Their Own Diets
    • 10.5.2: Psychological Factors
    • A Struggle for Perfection and Control
    • Depression, Low Self-Esteem, and Dysphoria
    • Low Self-Esteem
    • Dysphoria
    • Negative Body Image
    • Dietary Restraint
    • 10.5.3: Biological Factors
    • 10.5.4: Integration and Alternative Pathways
    • 10.6: Treatments for Anorexia and Bulimia
    • 10.6.1: Approaches to Treating Anorexia
    • Course and Outcome of Anorexia Nervosa
    • 10.6.2: Approaches to Treating Bulimia
    • Course and Outcome of Bulimia Nervosa
    • 10.6.3: Prevention of Eating Disorders
    • Summary: Feeding and Eating Disorders
    • Key Terms

Chapter 11 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

    • Learning Objectives
    • 11.1: Symptoms of Addiction
    • 11.1.1: Craving and Self-Control
    • 11.1.2: Tolerance and Withdrawal
    • 11.2: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Psychomotor Stimulants
    • 11.2.1: Alcohol
    • Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Alcohol
    • Disruption of Relationships
    • Blackouts
    • Interference With Job Performance
    • Problems With Legal Authorities
    • Health Problems
    • Severe Injuries and Premature Deaths
    • 11.2.2: Tobacco
    • 11.2.3: Amphetamine and Cocaine
    • 11.3: The Impact of Other Drugs on Human Physiology and Behavior
    • 11.3.1: Opiates
    • Short-Term Effects of Opiates
    • Long-Term Consequences of Opiates
    • 11.3.2: Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Anxiolytics
    • 11.3.3: Cannabis
    • 11.3.4: Hallucinogens and Related Drugs
    • 11.4: Diagnosis of Substance Use Disorders
    • 11.4.1: Brief History of Legal and Illegal Substances
    • 11.4.2: DSM-5
    • 11.4.3: Course and Outcome
    • 11.4.4: Other Disorders Commonly Associated With Addictions
    • 11.5: Frequency of Substance Use Disorders
    • 11.5.1: Prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorder
    • Gender Differences
    • 11.5.2: Prevalence of Drug and Nicotine Use Disorders
    • 11.5.3: Risk for Addiction Across the Life Span
    • 11.6: Causes of Substance Addiction
    • 11.6.1: Social Factors
    • 11.6.2: Biological Factors
    • Genetics of Alcoholism
    • Twin Data
    • Adoption Data
    • Dopamine and Reward Pathways
    • Endogenous Opioid Peptides
    • 11.6.3: Psychological Factors
    • 11.6.4: Integrated Systems
    • 11.7: Treatment for Substance Use Disorders
    • 11.7.1: Detoxification
    • 11.7.2: Self-Help Groups
    • The First Step
    • Working Through the Steps
    • Effectiveness
    • 11.7.3: Cognitive Behavior Therapy
    • Coping Skills Training
    • Relapse Prevention
    • Short-Term Motivational Therapy
    • 11.7.4: Two Major Studies
    • 11.7.5: General Conclusions
    • 11.8: Gambling Disorder
    • 11.8.1: Symptoms of Gambling Disorder
    • 11.8.2: Diagnosis of Gambling Disorder
    • 11.8.3: Frequency of Gambling Disorder
    • Summary: Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
    • Key Terms

Chapter 12 Sexual Dysfunctions, Paraphilic Disorders, and Gender Dysphoria

    • Learning Objectives
    • 12.1: Normal and Abnormal
    • 12.1.1: The Human Sexual Response Cycle
    • 12.1.2: Disruptions in the Sexual Response Cycle
    • 12.1.3: Historical Perspective
    • 12.1.4: Evaluating the Quality of Sexual Relationships
    • 12.1.5: Diagnosis of Sexual Dysfunctions
    • 12.2: Sexual Dysfunctions
    • 12.2.1: Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
    • 12.2.2: Erectile Disorder
    • 12.2.3: Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder
    • 12.2.4: Female Orgasmic Disorder
    • 12.2.5: Premature (Early) Ejaculation
    • 12.2.6: Delayed Ejaculation
    • 12.2.7: Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder
    • 12.3: The Origins of Sexual Dysfunction
    • 12.3.1: Frequency of Sexual Dysfunctions
    • 12.3.2: The Impact of Age and Culture
    • 12.3.3: Biological Factors Affecting Sexual Desire
    • 12.3.4: Psychological Factors Affecting Sexual Desire
    • 12.4: Treating Sexual Dysfunction
    • 12.4.1: Psychological Treatments for Sexual Dysfunction
    • The Efficacy of Psychological Treatments
    • 12.4.2: Biological Treatments for Sexual Dysfunction
    • 12.5: Paraphilic Disorders
    • 12.5.1: Symptoms of Paraphilic Disorders
    • 12.5.2: Diagnosis of Paraphilic Disorders
    • 12.5.3: Fetishistic and Transvestic Disorders
    • 12.5.4: Sexual Masochism Disorder
    • Sexual Sadism Disorder
    • 12.5.5: Exhibitionism, Voyeurism, and Frotteurism
    • 12.5.6: Pedophilic Disorder
    • 12.5.7: Rape and Sexual Assault
    • 12.6: The Origins of Paraphilia
    • 12.6.1: Frequency of Paraphilia
    • 12.6.2: Biological Factors Causing Paraphilia
    • 12.6.3: Social Factors Causing Paraphilia
    • 12.6.4: Psychological Factors Causing Paraphilia
    • 12.7: Treating Paraphilia
    • 12.7.1: Aversion Therapy
    • 12.7.2: Cognitive Behavioral Treatment
    • 12.7.3: Hormones and Medication
    • Legal Issues
    • Community Notification Laws
    • Sexual Predator Laws
    • 12.8: Gender Dysphoria
    • 12.8.1: Symptoms of Gender Dysphoria
    • 12.8.2: Frequency of Gender Dysphoria
    • 12.8.3: Causes of Gender Dysphoria
    • 12.8.4: Treatment for Gender Dysphoria
    • Summary: Sexual Dysfunctions, Paraphilic Disorders, and Gender Dysphoria
    • Key Terms

Chapter 13 Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

    • Learning Objectives
    • 13.1: Symptoms of Schizophrenia
    • 13.1.1: Positive Symptoms
    • First-Person Account of Delusional Beliefs
    • 13.1.2: Negative Symptoms
    • 13.1.3: Disorganization
    • Thinking Disturbances
    • Abnormal Motor Behavior
    • Catatonic Behavior
    • Stuporous Conditions
    • Inappropriate Affect
    • 13.2: Diagnosis of Schizophrenia
    • 13.2.1: DSM-5
    • 13.2.2: Subtypes
    • 13.2.3: Related Psychotic Disorders
    • 13.2.4: Course and Outcome
    • 13.3: Frequency of Schizophrenia
    • 13.3.1: Gender Differences
    • 13.3.2: Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    • 13.4: Biological Causes of Schizophrenia
    • 13.4.1: Genetics
    • Genetic Questions
    • Molecular Genetics
    • 13.4.2: Pregnancy and Birth Complications
    • 13.4.3: Neuropathology
    • Structural Brain Imaging
    • Functional Brain Imaging
    • General Conclusions
    • 13.4.4: Neurochemistry
    • 13.5: Social and Psychological Causes of Schizophrenia
    • 13.5.1: Social Class
    • Migrant Studies
    • 13.5.2: Expressed Emotion
    • High EE Outcomes
    • Understanding Family Attitudes
    • 13.5.3: Interaction of Biological and Environmental Factors
    • 13.6: The Search for Markers of Vulnerability
    • 13.6.1: Designing a Measure for Vulnerability
    • 13.6.2: Working-Memory Impairment
    • 13.6.3: Eye-Tracking Dysfunction
    • 13.7: Treatment of Schizophrenia
    • 13.7.1: Antipsychotic Medication
    • Maintenance and Side Effects
    • Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)
    • Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)
    • Second-Generation Antipsychotics
    • How Antipsychotics Function
    • 13.7.2: Psychosocial Treatment
    • Summary: Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
    • Key Terms

Chapter 14 Neurocognitive Disorders

    • Learning Objectives
    • 14.1: Symptoms of Neurocognitive Disorders
    • 14.1.1: Delirium
    • 14.1.2: Major Neurocognitive Disorder
    • Neurocognitive Symptoms
    • Memory and Learning
    • Verbal Communication and Perception
    • Abstract Thinking
    • Judgment and Social Behavior
    • Assessment of Neurocognitive Impairment
    • Neuropsychological Assessment
    • Personality and Emotion
    • Motor Behaviors
    • Dementia Versus Clinical Depression
    • 14.2: Diagnosis of Neurocognitive Disorders
    • 14.2.1: Brief Historical Perspective
    • 14.2.2: Specific Types of Neurocognitive Disorder
    • Neurocognitive Disorder Due to Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Neurofibrillary Tangles
    • Amyloid Plaques
    • Frontotemporal Neurocognitive Disorder
    • Neurocognitive Disorder With Lewy Bodies
    • Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder
    • Neurocognitive Disorder Due to Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Huntington’s Disease
    • Parkinson’s Disease
    • 14.3: Frequency of Delirium and Major Neurocognitive Disorders
    • 14.3.1: Prevalence of Dementia
    • 14.3.2: Prevalence by Subtypes of Neurocognitive Disorder
    • 14.3.3: Cross-Cultural Comparisons
    • 14.4: Causes of Neurocognitive Disorders
    • 14.4.1: Causes of Delirium
    • 14.4.2: Neurocognitive Disorder: Genetic Factors
    • Specific Genes
    • Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP Gene)
    • Presenilin Genes (PS1 and PS2)
    • APOE Gene
    • 14.4.3: Neurotransmitters in NCD
    • 14.4.4: Immunology and NCD
    • 14.4.5: Environmental Factors
    • 14.5: Treatment and Management
    • 14.5.1: Medication
    • 14.5.2: Environmental and Behavioral Management
    • 14.5.3: Support for Caregivers
    • Summary: Neurocognitive Disorders
    • Key Terms

Chapter 15 Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    • Learning Objectives
    • 15.1: Symptoms of Intellectual Disabilities
    • 15.1.1: Measuring Intelligence
    • Controversies About Intelligence Tests
    • 15.1.2: Measuring Adaptive Skills
    • 15.1.3: Age of Onset
    • 15.2: Diagnosis of Intellectual Disabilities
    • 15.2.1: History of Diagnosis
    • 15.2.2: Contemporary Diagnosis
    • Life and Death
    • 15.2.3: Frequency of Intellectual Disabilities
    • 15.3: Causes of Intellectual Disabilities
    • 15.3.1: Biological Factors Leading to Intellectual Disabilities
    • Genetic Disorders
    • Fragile-X Syndrome
    • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • Rare Recessive-Gene Disorders
    • Infectious Diseases
    • Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasmosis
    • Rubella
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • Syphilis
    • Genital Herpes
    • Encephalitis and Meningitis
    • Toxins
    • Alcohol
    • Environmental Toxins
    • Other Biological Abnormalities
    • Rh Incompatibility
    • Premature Birth
    • Anoxia, Malnutrition, and Epilepsy
    • Normal Genetic Variation
    • 15.3.2: Psychological and Social Factors Leading to Intellectual Disabilities
    • 15.4: Prevention and Normalization of Intellectual Disabilities
    • 15.4.1: Primary Prevention
    • 15.4.2: Secondary Prevention
    • 15.4.3: Tertiary Prevention
    • 15.4.4: Normalization
    • 15.5: Autism Spectrum Disorder
    • 15.5.1: Early Onset
    • 15.5.2: Deficits in Social Communication and Interaction
    • Theory of Mind
    • 15.5.3: Restricted, Repetitive Interests and Activities
    • 15.5.4: Other Symptoms of ASD
    • 15.5.5: Diagnosis of ASD
    • 15.5.6: Frequency of ASD
    • 15.6: Causes of ASD
    • 15.6.1: Psychological and Social Factors Leading to ASD
    • 15.6.2: Biological Factors Leading to ASD
    • The Role of Genetics in ASD
    • Neuroscience of ASD
    • 15.7: Treatment of ASD
    • 15.7.1: Course and Outcome
    • 15.7.2: Medication
    • 15.7.3: Applied Behavior Analysis
    • Other Applied Behavior Analysis Objectives
    • Communication Skills
    • Other New Skills
    • Social Responsiveness
    • Clinically Significant Improvements
    • Summary: Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders
    • Key Terms

Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders of Childhood

    • Learning Objectives
    • 16.1: Externalizing Disorders
    • 16.1.1: Rule Violations
    • Children’s Age and Rule Violations
    • Adolescent-Limited or Life-Course-Persistent?
    • 16.1.2: Other Symptoms
    • 16.1.3: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    • 16.1.4: Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    • 16.1.5: Conduct Disorder
    • 16.2: Causes of Externalizing Disorders
    • 16.2.1: Frequency of Externalizing
    • Family Risk Factors
    • 16.2.2: Biological Factors Contributing to Externalizing Disorders
    • Temperament
    • Neuropsychological Abnormalities
    • Genetics
    • Gene-Environment Interactions and ODD
    • 16.2.3: Social Factors Contributing to Externalizing Disorders
    • Parenting Styles
    • Coercion
    • Other Social Factors
    • Negative Attention
    • Inconsistency
    • Peers, Neighborhood, and Media
    • Social Factors in ADHD
    • 16.2.4: Psychological Factors in Externalizing Disorders
    • 16.3: Treatment of Externalizing Disorders
    • 16.3.1: Psychostimulants and ADHD
    • “Paradoxical Effect”
    • Usage and Effects
    • Concerns About Learning and Growth
    • Side Effects
    • Further Concerns and Alternatives
    • 16.3.2: Behavioral Family Therapy for ODD
    • 16.3.3: Treatment of Conduct Disorders
    • Course and Outcome
    • 16.4: Internalizing and Other Disorders
    • 16.4.1: Symptoms of Internalizing Disorders
    • 16.4.2: Diagnosis of Internalizing and Other Childhood Disorders
    • Contextual Classifications
    • 16.5: Causes and Treatment of Internalizing Disorders
    • 16.5.1: Frequency of Internalizing Disorders
    • 16.5.2: Suicide
    • 16.5.3: Biological Factors Causing Internalizing Disorders
    • 16.5.4: Social Factors Causing Internalizing Disorders
    • 16.5.5: Psychological Factors Causing Internalizing Disorders
    • 16.5.6: Treatment of Internalizing Disorders
    • Course and Outcome
    • Summary: Psychological Disorders of Childhood
    • Key Terms

Chapter 17 Adjustment Disorders and Life-Cycle Transitions

    • Learning Objectives
    • 17.1: Adjustment Disorders
    • 17.1.1: Symptoms of Adjustment Disorders
    • 17.1.2: Diagnosis of Adjustment Disorders
    • Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
    • Stage 1: Identity Versus Role Confusion
    • Stage 2: Intimacy Versus Self-Absorption
    • Stage 3: Generativity Versus Stagnation
    • Stage 4: Integrity and Despair
    • Adult Transitions
    • 17.2: The Transition to Adulthood
    • 17.2.1: Identity Crisis
    • 17.2.2: Changing Roles and Relationships
    • Emotional Turmoil
    • 17.2.3: Diagnosis of Identity Conflicts
    • 17.2.4: Frequency and Causes of Identity Conflicts
    • 17.2.5: Treatment During the Transition to Adult Life
    • 17.3: Family Transitions
    • 17.3.1: Symptoms of Family Transitions
    • Consequences of Family Transition
    • Family Conflict
    • Emotional Distress
    • Cognitive Conflicts
    • Diagnosis of Troubled Family Relationships
    • 17.3.2: Frequency of Family Transitions
    • 17.3.3: Causes of Difficulty in Family Transitions
    • 17.3.4: Prevention of Relationship Distress
    • 17.3.5: Couple Therapy and Family Therapy
    • Research on Couple Therapy
    • 17.4: The Transition to Later Life
    • 17.4.1: Physical Functioning and Health
    • 17.4.2: Happiness, Work, Relationships, and Sex
    • Sex
    • 17.4.3: Grief and Bereavement
    • 17.4.4: Mental Health and Suicide
    • 17.4.5: Diagnosis and Frequency of Aging
    • 17.4.6: Causes of Psychological Problems in Later Life
    • 17.4.7: Treatment of Psychological Problems in Later Life
    • Summary: Adjustment Disorders and Life-Cycle Transitions
    • Key Terms

Chapter 18 Mental Health and the Law

    • Learning Objectives
    • 18.1: Conflicts
    • 18.1.1: Expert Witnesses
    • 18.1.2: Free Will Versus Determinism
    • 18.1.3: Rights and Responsibilities
    • 18.2: Mental Illness and Criminal Responsibility
    • 18.2.1: The Insanity Defense
    • Legislative Actions
    • Guilty but Mentally Ill
    • Burden of Proof
    • Defining “Mental Disease or Defect”
    • Use of the Insanity Defense
    • 18.2.2: Competence to Stand Trial
    • Competency Hearings
    • 18.2.3: Sentencing and Mental Health
    • Sexual Predators
    • Affluenza
    • 18.3: Civil Commitment
    • 18.3.1: A Brief History of U.S. Mental Hospitals
    • 18.3.2: Involuntary Hospitalization
    • Predicting Dangerousness
    • Dangerousness to Others
    • Assessing Suicide Risk
    • Abuses of Civil Commitment
    • 18.4: Committed Patients’ Rights
    • 18.4.1: Right to Treatment
    • 18.4.2: Least Restrictive Environment
    • 18.4.3: Right to Refuse Treatment
    • Rotting With Their Rights On
    • Outpatient Commitment
    • Advance Psychiatric Directives
    • 18.4.4: Deinstitutionalization
    • 18.5: Mental Health and Family Law
    • 18.5.1: Child Custody Disputes
    • Expert Witnesses in Custody Disputes
    • Divorce Mediation
    • 18.5.2: Child Abuse
    • Four Forms of Child Abuse
    • Physical Child Abuse
    • Child Sexual Abuse
    • Child Neglect and Psychological Abuse
    • Government Responses to Child Abuse
    • 18.6: Professional Responsibilities and the Law
    • 18.6.1: Professional Negligence and Malpractice
    • Informed Consent on Alternative Treatments
    • 18.6.2: Confidentiality
    • Summary: Mental Health and the Law
    • Key Terms

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