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A History of Modern Psychology

A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition

By: C. James Goodwin
ISBN-10: 1118833759
/ ISBN-13: 9781119025931
Edition: 5th Edition
Language: English
				
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Title Page

Copyright

Contents

Preface

Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology’s History

    • Why Take This Course?
    • Why Study History?
    • Why Study Psychology’s History?
    • Key Issues in Psychology’s History
    • Presentism versus Historicism
    • Internal versus External History
    • Personalistic versus Naturalistic History
    • Close-Up: Edwin G. Boring (1886-1968)
    • This Book’s Point of View
    • Historiography: Doing and Writing History
    • Sources of Historical Data
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets His Academic Grandfather
    • Problems with the Writing of History
    • Data Selection Problems
    • Interpretation Problems
    • Approaching Historical Truth
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 2 The Philosophical Context

    • A Long Past
    • René Descartes (1596-1650): The Beginnings of Modern Philosophy and Science
    • Descartes and the Rationalist Argument
    • The Cartesian System
    • Descartes on the Reflex and Mind-Body Interaction
    • The British Empiricist Argument and the Associationists
    • John Locke (1632-1704): The Origins of British Empiricism
    • Locke on Human Understanding
    • Locke on Education
    • George Berkeley (1685-1753): Empiricism Applied to Vision
    • British Associationism
    • David Hume (1711-1776): The Rules of Association
    • David Hartley (1705-1757): A Physiological Associationism
    • Close-Up: Raising a Philosopher
    • John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): On the Verge of Psychological Science
    • Mill’s Psychology
    • Mill’s Logic
    • Rationalist Responses to Empiricism
    • Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
    • Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
    • In Perspective: Philosophical Foundations
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 3 The Scientific Context

    • Heroic Science in the Age of Enlightenment
    • Functioning of the Nervous System
    • Reflex Action
    • The Bell-Magendie Law
    • The Specific Energies of Nerves
    • Helmholtz: The Physiologist’s Physiologist
    • Measuring the Speed of Neural Impulses
    • Helmholtz on Vision and Audition
    • Helmholtz and the Problem of Perception
    • Localization of Brain Function
    • The Phrenology of Gall and Spurzheim
    • Close-Up: The Marketing of Phrenology
    • Flourens and the Method of Ablation
    • The Clinical Method
    • The Remarkable Phineas Gage
    • Broca and the Speech Center
    • Mapping the Brain: Electrical Stimulation
    • Nervous System Structure
    • Neuron Theory
    • Sir Charles Sherrington: The Synapse
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Sherrington in Oxford
    • In Perspective: The Nervous System and Behavior
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 4 Wundt and German Psychology

    • An Education in Germany
    • On the Threshold of Experimental Psychology: Psychophysics
    • Johann Herbart (1776-1841)
    • Ernst Weber (1795-1878)
    • Two-Point Thresholds
    • Weber’s Law
    • Gustav Fechner (1801-1889)
    • Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics
    • Wundt Establishes a New Psychology at Leipzig
    • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): Creating a New Science
    • Wundt’s Conception of the New Psychology
    • Studying Immediate Conscious Experience
    • Studying Higher Mental Processes
    • Inside Wundt’s Laboratory
    • Sensation and Perception
    • Mental Chronometry
    • Close-Up: An American in Leipzig
    • Rewriting History: The New and Improved Wilhelm Wundt
    • The Source of the Problem
    • The Rediscovery of Wundt
    • The Real Wundt
    • The Wundtian Legacy
    • The New Psychology Spreads
    • Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909): The Experimental Study of Memory
    • The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve
    • Other Contributions by Ebbinghaus
    • G. E. Müller (1850-1934): The Experimentalist Prototype
    • Oswald Külpe (1862-1915): The Würzburg School
    • Mental Sets and Imageless Thoughts
    • In Perspective: A New Science
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 5 Darwin’s Century: Evolutionary Thinking

    • The Species Problem
    • Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the Theory of Evolution
    • The Shaping of a Naturalist
    • The Voyage of the Beagle
    • Darwin the Geologist
    • Darwin the Zoologist
    • The Galapagos Islands
    • The Evolution of Darwin’s Theory
    • Darwin’s Delay
    • Elements of the Theory of Evolution
    • After the Origin of Species
    • Darwin and Psychology’s History
    • The Origins of Comparative Psychology
    • Darwin on the Evolution of Emotional Expressions
    • Close-Up: Douglas Spalding and the Experimental Study of Instinct
    • George Romanes (1848-1894) and the Anecdotal Method
    • Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936) and his “Canon”
    • Comparative Psychology in America
    • Studying Individual Differences
    • Francis Galton (1822-1911): Jack of All Sciences
    • The Nature of Intelligence
    • The Anthropometric Laboratory
    • Investigating Imagery and Association
    • In Perspective: Darwin’s Century
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 6 American Pioneers

    • Psychology in 19th-Century America
    • Faculty Psychology
    • American Psychology’s First Textbook
    • The Modern University
    • Education for Women and Minorities
    • William James (1842-1910): The First of the “New” Psychologists in America
    • The Formative Years
    • A Life at Harvard
    • Creating American Psychology’s Most Famous Textbook
    • On Methodology
    • Consciousness
    • Habit
    • Emotion
    • James’s Later Years
    • Spiritualism
    • Summing Up William James
    • G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924): Professionalizing the New Psychology
    • Hall’s Early Life and Education
    • From Johns Hopkins to Clark
    • Psychology at Clark
    • Close-Up: Creating Maze Learning
    • Hall and Developmental Psychology
    • Hall and Psychoanalysis
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Invention of the Stylus Maze
    • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930): Challenging the Male Monopoly
    • Calkins’s Life and Work
    • Graduate Education for Females
    • Calkins’s Research on Association
    • From Psychology to Philosophy
    • Other Women Pioneers: Untold Lives
    • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930)
    • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)
    • Other Pioneers: Ladd and Baldwin
    • George Trumbull Ladd (1842-1921)
    • James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934)
    • In Perspective: The New Psychology at the Millennium
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 7 Structuralism and Functionalism

    • Titchener’s Psychology: Structuralism
    • From Oxford to Leipzig to Cornell
    • Promoting Experimental Psychology at Cornell
    • The Manuals
    • The Experimentalists
    • Titchener’s Structuralist System
    • Close-Up: The Introspective Habit
    • The Structural Elements of Human Conscious Experience
    • Evaluating Titchener’s Contributions to Psychology
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Carlisle Conference
    • America’s Psychology: Functionalism
    • The Chicago Functionalists
    • John Dewey (1859-1952): The Reflex Arc
    • James R. Angell (1869-1949): The Province of Functional Psychology
    • Harvey Carr (1873-1954): The Maturing of Functionalism
    • The Columbia Functionalists
    • James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944): An American Galton
    • Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949): Cats in Puzzle Boxes
    • Robert S. Woodworth (1869-1962): A Dynamic Psychology
    • In Perspective: Structuralism and Functionalism
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 8 Applying the new Psychology

    • The Desire for Application
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles and Stanford Football
    • The Mental Testing Movement
    • Alfred Binet (1857-1911): The Birth of Modern Intelligence Testing
    • The Binet-Simon Scales
    • Henry H. Goddard (1866-1957): Binet’s Test Comes to America
    • The Kallikaks
    • Goddard and the Immigrants
    • Lewis M. Terman (1877-1956): Institutionalizing IQ
    • The Stanford-Binet IQ Test
    • Terman Studies the Gifted
    • Close-Up: Leta Hollingworth: Advocating for Gifted Children and Debunking Myths about Women
    • Robert M. Yerkes (1876-1956): The Army Testing Program
    • Army Alpha and Army Beta
    • The Controversy over Intelligence
    • Applying Psychology to Business
    • Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916): The Diversity of Applied Psychology
    • Münsterberg and Employee Selection
    • Other Leading Industrial Psychologists in America
    • Walter Van Dyke Bingham (1880-1952)
    • Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972)
    • Harry Hollingworth (1880-1956)
    • Applied Psychology in Europe-Psychotechnics
    • In Perspective: Applied Psychology
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 9 Gestalt Psychology

    • The Origins and Early Development of Gestalt Psychology
    • Max Wertheimer (1880-1943): Founding Gestalt Psychology
    • Koffka (1886-1941) and Köhler (1887-1967): Cofounders
    • Close-Up: A Case of Espionage?
    • Gestalt Psychology and Perception
    • Principles of Perceptual Organization
    • Behavioral versus Geographic Environments
    • The Gestalt Approach to Cognition and Learning
    • Köhler on Insight in Apes
    • Wertheimer on Productive Thinking
    • Other Gestalt Research on Cognition
    • Kurt Lewin (1890-1947): Expanding the Gestalt Vision
    • Early Life and Career
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles Learns about the Nazi Version of Academic Freedom
    • Field Theory
    • The Zeigarnik Effect
    • Lewin as Developmental Psychologist
    • Lewin as Social Psychologist
    • Action Research
    • Evaluating Lewin
    • In Perspective: Gestalt Psychology in America
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 10 The Origins of Behaviorism

    • Behaviorism’s Antecedents
    • Pavlov’s Life and Work
    • The Development of a Physiologist
    • Working in Pavlov’s Laboratory-The Physiology Factory
    • Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Research
    • Conditioning and Extinction
    • Generalization and Differentiation
    • Experimental Neurosis
    • A Program of Research
    • Pavlov and the Soviets
    • Pavlov and the Americans
    • Close-Up: Misportraying Pavlov’s Apparatus
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets Pavlov
    • John B. Watson and the Founding of Behaviorism
    • The Young Functionalist at Chicago
    • The Watson-Carr Maze Studies
    • Opportunity Knocks at Johns Hopkins
    • Watson and Animal Behavior
    • Watson’s Behaviorist Manifesto
    • Watson’s APA Presidential Address
    • Studying Emotional Development
    • The Zenith and the Nadir of a Career: Little Albert
    • A New Life in Advertising
    • Popularizing Behaviorism
    • Evaluating Watsonian Behaviorism
    • In Perspective: Behaviorism’s Origins
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 11 The Evolution of Behaviorism

    • Post-Watsonian Behaviorism
    • Logical Positivism and Operationism
    • Neobehaviorism
    • Edwin R. Guthrie (1886-1959): Contiguity, Contiguity, Contiguity
    • One-Trial Learning
    • Evaluating Guthrie
    • Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959): A Purposive Behaviorism
    • Tolman’s System
    • Molar versus Molecular Behavior
    • Goal-Directedness
    • Intervening Variables
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Old Boys Network
    • Tolman’s Research Program
    • Latent Learning
    • Cognitive Maps
    • Evaluating Tolman
    • Clark Hull (1884-1952): A Hypothetico-Deductive System
    • Hull’s System
    • Postulate 4: Habit Strength
    • Reaction Potential
    • Evaluating Hull
    • B. F. Skinner (1904-1990): A Radical Behaviorism
    • The Experimental Analysis of Behavior
    • Operant Conditioning: A Primer
    • Skinner and Theory
    • Skinner and the Problem of Explanation
    • A Technology of Behavior
    • Close-Up: The IQ Zoo and the “Misbehavior of Organisms”
    • Evaluating Skinner
    • In Perspective: Neobehaviorism
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 12 Mental Illness and its Treatment

    • Early Treatment of the Mentally Ill
    • “Enlightened” Reform: Pinel, Tuke, Rush
    • The 19th-Century Asylum Movement
    • Reforming Asylums: Dix and Beers
    • Close-Up: Diagnosing Mental Illness
    • Mesmerism and Hypnosis
    • Mesmerism and Animal Magnetism
    • From Mesmerism to Hypnosis
    • The Hypnotism Controversies
    • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Founding Psychoanalysis
    • Early Life and Education
    • Breuer and the Catharsis Method
    • Creating Psychoanalysis
    • The Importance of Sex
    • Psychoanalysis Enters the 20th Century
    • The Evolution of Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Freud’s Followers: Loyalty and Dissent
    • Psychoanalysis in America
    • Evaluating Freud
    • Contributions
    • Criticisms
    • In Perspective: Treating Mental Illness
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 13 Psychology’s Practitioners

    • The Medical Approach to Mental Illness
    • A Shock to the System: Fever, Insulin, Metrazol, and Electricity
    • Close-Up: Shell Shock
    • No Reversal: Lobotomy, Transorbital and Otherwise
    • Clinical Psychology before World War II
    • Lightner Witmer (1867-1956): Creating Psychology’s First Clinic
    • Clinical Psychology Between the World Wars
    • The Emergence of Modern Clinical Psychology
    • The Boulder Model
    • The Eysenck Study: Problems for Psychotherapy
    • Behavior Therapy
    • The Humanistic Approach to Psychotherapy
    • Abraham Maslow and the Goal of Self-Actualization
    • Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy
    • Evaluating Humanistic Psychology
    • The Vail Conference and the PsyD Degree
    • Psychology and the World of Business and Industry
    • The Hawthorne Studies
    • In Perspective: Psychology’s Practitioners
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 14 Psychology’s Researchers

    • Cognitive Psychology Arrives (Again)
    • The Roots of Modern Cognitive Psychology
    • Jean Piaget (1896-1980): A Genetic Epistemology
    • Frederick C. Bartlett (1886-1969): Constructing Memory
    • A Convergence of Influences
    • Influences within Psychology
    • Influences External to Psychology
    • Close-Up: What Revolution?
    • Magical Numbers, Selective Filters, and TOTE Units
    • Neisser and the “Naming” of Cognitive Psychology
    • The Evolution of Cognitive Psychology
    • Evaluating Cognitive Psychology
    • Other Research Areas
    • The Brain and Behavior
    • Karl Lashley (1890-1958)
    • From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Lashley
    • Donald O. Hebb (1904-1985)
    • The Psychology of Perception
    • James J. Gibson (1904-1979)
    • Eleanor Gibson (1910-2002)
    • Social Psychology
    • Leon Festinger (1919-1989)
    • Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)
    • Personality Psychology
    • Henry Murray (1893-1988)
    • Gordon Allport (1897-1967)
    • In Perspective: Psychology’s Researchers
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

Chapter 15 Psychology in the 21st Century

    • Researchers and Practitioners
    • The Growth and Diversity of Psychology
    • Women in Psychology’s History
    • Minorities in Psychology’s History
    • Trends in Modern Psychology
    • The Future: Psychology or Psychologies?
    • Summary
    • Study Questions

References

Glossary

Index

Timelines

EULA

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